Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life - download pdf or read online

By Angela O'rand, John C Henretta

Within the usa, older populations express the top degrees of monetary inequality of all age teams. throughout all complex societies, the inequalities saw in older populations stem from structural and person approaches that differentiate the lifestyles classes of girls and males and yield specific styles of financial inequality in maturity and outdated age.Age and Inequality examines the structural and person bases of inequality and getting older within the usa, specifically in contemporary a long time. The interaction of the employment method with private and non-private social assurance structures operates to constitution the shapes of labor careers and the styles of go out from those careers in past due maturity and outdated age.Gender inequality around the lifestyles direction is a crucial part of age inequality. exertions industry constitution, nation regulations, and existence direction elements reminiscent of fertility and the department of family hard work systematically differentiate men’s and women’s paintings careers.Aging and retirement within the twenty-first century bring up matters relating to public welfare and industry regulations affecting exertions exits and source of revenue help platforms over the following part century. Angela O’Rand and John Henretta think about the results of the altering office and altering public guidelines for ladies and males.

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6. Pension income ratios for similar age categories in 1995 fall slightly below wage ratios. The relative transferability of wage ratios to pension ratios suggests a process of status maintenance—one in which wage inequality converts directly to pension income inequality. The 70+ age-group's relatively greater equality in 1980 is reduced by more than 20 percent over the period as it falls below the ceiling in 1995 along with other age-groups. Higher relative equality in the oldest agegroup in 1980 probably reflects two conditions characteristic of the period before the 1980s.

Income of the Population 55 or Older, 1994. : Sjcial Seen rity Adir linistrat:ion. gov/i statistics/ mcpop5 5> ^5 44 Pathways to Inequality: Intracohort Differentiation over the Life Course lit addition to these general patterns, there are important differences across marital status. Unmarried households tend to be older than the married and are disproportionately female and widowed. They depend more on Social Security benefits arid means-tested public assistance and less on earnings compared to the married.

Both the wage gap and the pension gap between men and women are highly associated with occupational segregation (Blau 1998). , Oaxaca and Ransom 1994; Blau and Kahn 1996). Generally, pay inequity is examined by comparing the differential returns in earnings/wages to a set of observable covariates measured across status groups (gender and race groups); the residual differences in returns reflect the "unexplained" component of wage inequality that may result from discrimination. Individual-level or human capital variables and job-level or labor market variables, on average, yield lower returns in earnings/wages to women and nonwhite workers when compared to men and white workers.

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