By Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree
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Extra info for An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000
Thus, Michael Rowlands has suggested locally based seasonal production. Metal types can have surprisingly wide distributions, and the transmission of models or ideas (rather than itinerant smiths) is documented, for example, by the early Urnﬁeld ﬂange-hilted swords, which show close similarities from the east Mediterranean to western Europe. Excavations by Stephen Shennan at an Early Bronze Age mining village in the Salzach valley, Sankt Veit–Klinglberg, indicate that the metal smelters were already craft specialists, importing foodstuffs and using ores won from various outcrops.
With a few exceptions, such as the Early Bronze Age Hungarian Plain tell settlements and some reoccupied ﬁfth millennium tells in south central Bulgaria, “villages” are unknown. The typical inhabitant of southeastern Europe in the earlier Bronze Age lived in a farmstead or hamlet of ten to ﬁfty people. Demographically, in order to survive and reproduce the next generation, the breeding population must be larger than this. Thus although the people of this time lived in small communities, they were necessarily cognizant of other such communities around them.
Prior to this time, according to Sherratt, domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, and cattle, were important primarily as food. They were part of a system of food resources that worked synergistically, each part contributing to and amplifying the results of the effort as a whole. Thus domestic animals were “food on the hoof,” partial insurance against bad crop years, able to live on uncleared or agriculturally marginal land and able to graze on harvested ﬁelds, which they improved by reducing the stubble and producing fertilizer.