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Mathematical types of stock structures
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5). 15). 16). The rough areas are static fractures from where the spar boom was broken open for examination after testing. 17). The fracture surface has a darker appearance after the propagating crack intersects the specimen surface. 15. Marine steam turbine blade, width 18 mm. National Engineering Laboratory photograph. Reproduced under the terms of the Click-Use Licence. 16. Al-Cu alloy aircraft spar boom, width 85 mm. 17. Cast steel specimen, diameter of light area 8 mm. National Engineering Laboratory photograph.
Each striation corresponds to one stress cycle, hence the distance between striations is the amount the crack front has moved forward during one cycle. This one to one correspondence between striations and applied stress cycles has been demonstrated experimentally many times (Pook and Smith 1979). On a microscopic scale fatigue crack propagation in a metallic material is a very irregular process. The presence of striations is evidence that a crack was created by fatigue crack propagation. Striations are not always observed, so their absence does not necessarily imply that fatigue crack propagation did not take place.
In the hypothetical S/N curve the fatigue limit is replaced by a line with a slope of 1/(m + 2) for lives greater than 107 . A series of Miner’s rule summations showed that (ni /Ni ) was always at least one. This idea is used in various standards, including BS 5400 (Anon. 1980a). 12), then a weighted average stress range (or equivalent constant amplitude stress range) can be calculated (Paris 1962, Etube 2001). 1). 12). 12. 1. Annual fatigue loading. 2. Annual fatigue loading calculations. 080 MPa.