By Wan Azlina Ahmad, Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Zainul Akmar Zakaria, Nur Zulaikha Yusof
Environmental matters concerning non-stop use of man-made dyes observed a revival within the call for for normal dyes as typical dyes convey higher biodegradability and usually have a better compatibility with the surroundings. although, one of many barriers at the use of ordinary dyes or pigments is the low extraction yield components (a few grams of pigment in line with kg of dried uncooked material). consequently, the exploitation of alternative organic assets equivalent to fungi, micro organism and mobile cultures bargains fascinating substitute. Microbial pigments similar to from bacterial origins supply the virtue by way of construction in comparison to pigments extracted from greens or animals, as a result of its uncomplicated cellphone and quickly culturing strategy. This booklet bargains fascinating perception into preliminary works performed to illustrate the aptitude use of bacterial pigment as colorant for varied applications.
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Additional info for Application of Bacterial Pigments as Colorant: The Malaysian Perspective
Res. Quart 34:131–140 Song MJ, Bae J, Lee DS, Kim CH, Kim JS, Kim SW, Hong SI (2006) Purification and characterization of prodigiosin produced by integrated bioreactor from Serratia sp. KH-95. J Biosci Bioeng 101(2):157–161 Timberlake CF, Henry BS (1986) Plant pigments as natural food colours. Endeavour 10(1):31–36 Tinoi J, Rakariyatham N, Deming RL (2005)Simplex optimization of carotenoid production by Rhodotorula glutinis using hydrolyzed mung bean waste flour as substrate. , a new aerobic Gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium.
32 ppm (s, hydroxyl group). Chemical shifts observed at these lower-field regions were due to hydrogen bonding occurring between phenolic hydroxyl group with an ortho group (H-5 and H-7) that exists in the indole skeleton (Lambert and Mazzola 2004). Four protons were observed in aromatic isatin skeleton. 20 ppm (H-21, t, 34 Fig. 8 2 Isolation of Pigment-Producing Bacteria 1 H NMR spectrum of violet pigment Fig. 6 Hz). 0 Hz was assigned to H-13 in the lactam skeleton. The appearance of low-field signals from indole and pyrrole NH protons can be attributed to the presence of electron-withdrawing group substituents attached to the pyrrole ring.
1a,b). For bacterial colonies isolated from the oil refinery in Port Dickson, 8 were colored. Of these, isolate S1a that displayed gradual color change from grey to dark violet throughout incubation period, was chosen for further study (Fig. 1c, d). 28 2 Isolation of Pigment-Producing Bacteria Fig. 4 Characterization of Microorganisms (violet, yellow, red) The characterization of bacteria was carried out by Vivantis Technologies Sdn. , Malaysia, using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. , violet pigment as Chromobacterium violaceum (C.