New PDF release: Autism spectrum disorders: psychological theory and research

By Dermot Bowler

Mental examine into autism spectrum problems (ASD) has elevated exponentially within the final twenty years. a lot of this paintings has been led via a number of theorists who declare to have pointed out strategies that carry the foremost to figuring out the . consequently, rookies to the sector think that they have got to decide upon a number of of the competing methods and to overlook the rest as being not directly unsuitable. in reality, the several theoretical views are only that - assorted issues of view at the comparable phenomenon - each one with its personal insights to supply. this isn't to assert that figuring out ASD in mental phrases is simply an issue of selecting a standpoint and that each one views are of equivalent price. sincerely they're not.This e-book, as well as offering an overview of what present views need to provide, additionally presents a framework to assist readers to come to a decision which points of mental examine into ASD give a contribution to our realizing of the sector and the way those might be built-in in a manner that allows learn to be taken ahead.

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Extra info for Autism spectrum disorders: psychological theory and research

Example text

1985) demonstrated in their seminal Sally–Anne study. Moreover, they concluded that this impairment resulted from damage to a specific mechanism – the theory of mind mechanism. It is unfortunate, and confusing for newcomers to the field, that Leslie and Perner used the same term (metarepresentation) for two quite different phenomena, each of which develops in children at quite different ages. Grasping the potentially false nature of the representational relation between objects and their representations does not begin to develop until around a child’s fourth birthday; the ability to generate agent-centred representations of objects and to use these in the service of pretence typically develops by about 18 months.

1995; Ozonoff, Rogers & Pennington, 1991b) did not use the more recently developed DSM-IV criteria and thus it is likely that many of the participants described as having Asperger’s syndrome would also have met criteria for autism. But one study that did recruit participants on the basis of the application of DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria was that of Manjiviona and Prior (1999). They took children and adolescents who had a clinical diagnosis of either autism or Asperger’s syndrome, and administered a battery of intelligence and neuropsychological tests.

They found that from about 18 months of age, children tended to attach a new name to whatever object was being looked at by the adult rather than the object the child was looking at. In other words, children used a speaker’s direction of gaze (SDG) rather than a listener’s direction of gaze (LDG) strategy to acquire new vocabulary. On the basis of the ‘theory of mind deficit’ account of ASD, and more specifically on observations of impaired joint attention in ASD, Baron-Cohen, Baldwin and Crowson (1997a) predicted that such children would be more likely to use LDG rather than SDG when in situations used by Tomasello and Baldwin in their experiments.

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