By M. Morrison
Stories in Avian Biology is a chain of works too lengthy for The Condor, released at abnormal periods by way of the Cooper Ornithological Society.
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Extra info for Avian Foraging Theory Methodlogy and Applications (Studies in avian biology)
Both x and y are measured on several sampling units and the relationship between them is expressed as a ratio QJZ,). Then a larger number of samples is taken measuring only x. An estimate of y for the entire study area can then be obtained by using the general formula above. This method is mentioned frequently in the following sections. McDonald and Manly (1989) consider an alternative to ratio (regression) estimation in which an attempt is made to calibrate a biased sampling procedure by estimating a selection function.
These changes probably reflect shifts in relative availability of one prey type over another, however, and not necessarily a change in overall prey availability. MEASURING TABLE 2. FOOD AVAILABILITY SOME FORAGING BEHAVIORS LIKELY TO BE INFLUENCED BY Expectedrelationshipwith Behavior Temporal attack rate (No. pecks/set) Spatial attack rate (No. pecks/m) Rate of progression(cm/set) Search velocity (No. hops/set) Mean move length (No. hops/m) Search tactic change(glean, sally . ) Food delivery rate (No.
Birds appeared to be more effective predators than ants high in the trees, but were Torgersenet al. 19 about equally effective in low branches. These results left little doubt that birds and ants, separately or together, were at least as effective predators on high branches of old-growth trees as on branches or trees up to 9 m tall (Campbell and Torgersen 1983b). In concurrent studies designed to observe and identify avian predators on several of our study sites, Langelier and Garton (1986) and Garton (1987) identified several species of birds that were eating the budworm.