By Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Abdollahi
This e-book bargains a realistic advisor to the scientific administration of sulphur and nitrogen mustard publicity together with info at the heritage, pharmacology and toxicology of mustard compounds (MC).
Basic and medical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds info the various ensuing issues of sulphur mustard (SM) poisoning equivalent to breathing, Dermatological, Ophthalmological and Psychiatric.
This quantity is a key source for medical toxicologists, army and emergency physicians who're interested by the instructing and learn of MC and for all scientific and future health professions who're chargeable for the prevention, prognosis and therapy of MC poisonings.
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Extra info for Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds
2007; Lomash and Pant 2014; Kumar et al. 2013). Several topical antibiotics and antimicrobials can be used for management of damaged skin. 5 % can protect the skin against bacteria and yeast-like organisms (Tuorinsky 2008). 11 Conclusion Mustard compounds are generally classified into two major groups: sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustards. Mustard compounds have been used as chemical warfare agents and also as therapeutic anti-cancer drugs. Mustard compounds are alkylating agents. They covalently bond to nucleophilic sites of amine, carboxyl, sulfhydryl and imidazole in biomolecules.
Then the Spaniards extensively used SM against Rif civilian and troops in 1924 (Anonymus 2014). This happened 1 year before time that “the protocol of Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare”; as the Geneva Protocol; had been signed (Anonymus 2014). The applied CWA were produced in National Chemical Factory of Spain at La Marañosa near Madrid (Balfour 2002). Hugo Stoltzenberg; a German chemist who later became a citizen of Spain, had great help in the production of these compounds (Anonymus 2014).
Another alternative for mustard gas decontamination is its hydrolysis process to non-toxic O N R Cl N Cl −Cl− H3C N+ N H NH N O H N R NH2 NH2 Cl R Fig. 8 Formation of aziridinium ion and bonding to guanine N+ N N H 22 M. Sadeghi and B. Balali-Mood dechlorinated products. 5). By hydrolysis, mustard agent decomposes into thiodiglycol non-poisonous product. For hydrolysis and oxidation the following reagents have been proposed: sodium hypochlorite, chloramine-T, Halazone, ozone, alkaline solution of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide.