Download e-book for kindle: C in a Nutshell (2nd Edition) by Peter Prinz, Tony Crawford

By Peter Prinz, Tony Crawford

The hot variation of this vintage O'Reilly reference offers transparent, precise reasons of each function within the interval and runtime library, together with multithreading, type-generic macros, and library services which are new within the 2011 C regular (C11). so as to comprehend the consequences of an strange functionality, and the way the traditional library calls for it to act, you'll locate it the following, besides a customary example.

Ideal for skilled C and C++ programmers, this ebook additionally comprises well known instruments within the GNU software program assortment. You'll find out how to construct C courses with GNU Make, assemble executable courses from C resource code, and try and debug your courses with the GNU debugger.

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Additional info for C in a Nutshell (2nd Edition)

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The reasoning that led to the answer to the previous question was entirely general: ffalseg S fQg is true whatever S and Q may be! Therefore, again the question posed in the heading is to be answered as follows: Any program, S, satisfies the predicate ffalseg S ffalseg. Again, this holds, even if S is non-terminating. 4 Case 4: For What Values of S Does ftrueg S ffalseg Hold? We illuminate this question by expanding the Hoare triple ftrueg S ffalseg in terms of its initial definition, as we did before: If the computer is in a state belonging to the set Statestrue just before S executes, then S will terminate and the computer will end up in a state belonging to the set Statesfalse .

However, it may be of interest to note that the precondition approach is generally classified as an axiomatic approach to defining semantics, and we usually speak of the “precondition semantics” in this context. 5 Although program constructs are commonly referred to as statements, Dijkstra preferred the term command. For this reason, the term shall be used consistently throughout this text. 1 Empty Command We have already encountered the skip command. It is a command which “does nothing”. Curiously, however, the command is both theoretically interesting, and operationally necessary in GCL.

2 Diversion: Some Extreme Cases The material presented in this section diverts from the main discussion about GCL semantics. We believe that the material covered gives an interesting theoretical insight into the meaning and nature of both Hoare triples precondition semantics. Nevertheless, it is not essential background for understanding the rest of this text, and some readers may wish to skip it—at least on first reading. 3 Guarded Command Language 19 Delving into the meaning of a few “extreme” Hoare triples will sharpen the understanding of the theory developed to date, and will show its overall consistency and elegance.

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