By Karin Friedrich, Barbara Pendzich
This quantity seeks to handle the doubts harboured through the West concerning the skill of East relevant eu states to construct smooth democracies and tolerant societies after the growth of the ecu Union eastwards. The culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is thereby frequently neglected in favour of the nationalist romanticism and xenophobia of the 19th and early 20th century, which arose from the categorical context of the walls of 1772-95. but citizenship in a multinational context was once a primary subject matter of the political debate in early glossy Poland-Lithuania. for plenty of modern non secular and nationwide conflicts, this Commonwealth can't be a right away version for imitation, yet could function a resource of concept as a result inventive ideas and compromises it negotiated whereas integrating many religions and ethnicities. participants are James B. Collins, Karin Friedrich, Gershon David Hundert, Joanna Kostylo, Krzysztof Lazarski, Allan I. Macinnes, Barbara M. Pendzich, Felicia Roşu, Barbara Skinner, and Artūras Vasiliauskas.
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Additional info for Citizenship and Identity in a Multinational Commonwealth: Poland-lithuania in Context, 1550-1772 (Studies in Central European Histories)
Election and participation were also part of the military constitution, as the Commonwealth professed the ideals of maintaining a citizens’ army. The Poles had read and listened to the advice of Sallust and of Machiavelli that a commonwealth could only survive unfettered by tyranny and foreign rule if its members were willing to bring personal sacrifices in defence of its liberties and 2 Joseph Andrew Teslar, “Shakespeare’s Worthy Counsellor,” in Sacrum Poloniae Millennium. Rozprawy—Szkice—Materiały historyczne VII (Rome, 1960), 1–144, here 20–21.
This close examination of the procedures and proceedings of the local assemblies reveals the real impact of local political practice and self-government. The self-confidence of the citizens in the localities, which translated civic virtue and constitutional ideals into practice, was particularly strong and widespread during and after the Union of Lublin and partly explains the enduring success of the union. Although quantitative research on attendance figures in the local Lithuanian assemblies is based on rather fragmented and often incomplete sources, they provide glimpses of impressive levels of political activism among the poorer szlachta, with at least a third of local noble families of a district regularly involved in sejmik sessions, which took place around four times a year.
15 16 26 felicia ro^u Legal Reform under Stefan Batory The Transylvanian’s arrival to the Polish–Lithuanian throne in 1576 did not improve matters in and of itself, even though royal jurisdiction was thus re-instated in the king’s person. By now, the nobility’s judicial autonomy had gone so far as to render virtually impossible a reversal to the old legal order. 20 In January 1576, the nobles and senators who supported Batory’s election assembled at J drzejów to reconfirm their choice of candidate and list the issues that they wanted discussed in the following general conventions.