Read e-book online Civil Liberties and Human Rights (3rd Edition) PDF

By Fenwick

This textbook offers an in depth severe research of the felony safety of civil liberties in Britain. It units out to hide the most subject matters in most cases handled on civil liberties classes in an obtainable demeanour whereas offering specific exam of parts of specific educational curiosity. This ebook considers the theoretical history opposed to which to degree the safety of civil liberties in perform and it examines the impact of the eu conference on Human Rights and the deficiencies of the normal constitutional preparations. It additionally covers freedom of expression together with freedom of knowledge and meeting, and it evaluates the level to which privateness pursuits obtain defense in united kingdom legislation. The publication additionally examines freedom of the individual with specific emphasis at the altering nature of safeguards for suspects in police custody, and considers anti-discrimination measures and equivalent therapy for people lower than the current legislations.

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Table of Cases Attorney General v BBC, Same v Hat Trick Productions Ltd (1996) The Times, 26 July 236 Attorney General v Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd [1998] 4 All ER 49 215, 225, 233 Attorney General v English (Dr Arthur’s case) [1983] 1 AC 116; [1982] 2 All ER 903, HL 102, 234, 238, 239 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 1) (Spycatcher litigation) [1987] 3 All ER 316; [1987] 1 WLR 1248, CA and HL 128, 357, 548, 577, 616, 622, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers (No 2) (Spycatcher litigation) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 114, 210, 339, 358–60, 363, 364, 374, 536, 566, 567, 572, 574–80, 582, 585, 589, 616, 622, 631, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers No 3 [1992] 1 WLR 874; [1992] 3 All ER 38, CA 237, 240, 243 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers [1999] EMLR 904 234 Attorney General v Hislop and Pressdram [1991] 1 QB 514; [1991] 1 All ER 911; [1991] 2 WLR 219, CA 231, 234, 235, 237, 239, 245, 248, 251 Attorney General v Independent TV News and Others [1995] 2 All ER 370 Attorney General v Jonathan Cape [1976] QB 752 235 355, 578, 580 Attorney General v Leveller Magazine Ltd [1979] AC 440; [1979] 2 WLR 247, HL 241, 244 Attorney General v MGN [1997] 1 All ER 456 232–34 Attorney General v Morgan [1998] EMLR 294 236 Attorney General v New Statesman [1981] QB 1 260 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers Ltd (1983) The Times, 12 February 236, 237 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers [1987] 1 QB 1; [1986] 2 All ER 833; [1986] 3 WLR 365, CA 225, 233, 235 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers plc [1989] QB 110; [1988] 3 WLR 163; [1988] 2 All ER 906 245–47, 256 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers (1999) (unreported) 235 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (1990) The Times, 28 February 245, 249, 363 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (Spycatcher) [1988] Ch 333; [1987] 3 All ER 276; [1988] 3 WLR 942, CA 102, 246, 249–52, 264, 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (No 2) (Spycatcher) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc and Others [1997] 3 All ER 159; (1997) The Times, 2 May, CA xxix 249 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Attorney General v Observer and Guardian Newspapers Ltd, Re (1989) The Times, 9 May 245 Attorney General v Sport Newspapers Ltd [1991] 1 WLR 1194 247, 248 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1974] AC 273; [1973] 3 All ER 54; [1973] 3 WLR 298, HL 32, 224, 228, 256 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] 1 AC 191; [1991] 2 All ER 398; [1991] 2 WLR 994, HL 32, 227, 363, 591, 651 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd (Tomlinson case) (2001) EMLR 19 361, 567, 568 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd and Others (1983) The Times, 12 February, DC 32, 232, 234, 239, 249, 250 Attorney General v TVS Television, Attorney General v HW Southey & Sons (1989) The Times, 7 July 240 Attorney General ex rel McWhirter v IBA [1973] QB 629, CA 289 Attorney General for New South Wales v Trethowan [1932] AC 526 132 Attorney General of Hong Kong v Lee Kwong-Kut [1993] AC 951 187 Attorney General’s Reference (No 5 of 1980) [1980] 3 All ER 816, CA 281 Attorney General’s Reference (No 7 of 1989) (1990) 12 Cr App R (S) 1 Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 1999) [2001] 2 WLR 56, HL Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 2000) [2001] Crim LR 645 Atwood v Atwood Finch’s Chancery Precedents 492 1065 710, 892, 906, 926 905 1064 Aujla [1998] 2 Cr App R 16 686 Austria v Italy (1961) No 788/60 4 YB 112 902 Autronic AG v Switzerland (1990) 12 EHRR 485 Averill v UK (2001) 31 EHRR 36; (2000) The Times, 20 June Aydin v Turkey (1997) 25 EHRR 251 35 63, 861–63, 901 45 Aylor-Davis v France (1994) 76-A DR 164 964 Aziz v Trinity St Taxis [1988] WLR 79; [1988] 2 All ER 860,CA B (a minor), Re [1981] 1 WLR 1421, CA 1028, 1029 40 B v France (1992) 16 EHRR 1; (1992) 13 HRLJ 358 B v UK (1983) 34 DR 68; (1983) 6 EHRR 354 68, 77, 398, 744 70, 1057 B v UK A 136–ZD (1988) 914 BBC ex p Owen [1985] QB 1153 559, 951 BBC Scotland v UK (1998) 25 EHRR CD 179 221, 223–25, 232 Badek and Others v Landesanwalt bein Staatgerichtshof des Landes Hessen (Case C-158/97) [2000] All ER (EC) 289 1042 Badham [1987] Crim LR 202 645 Baggs v UK (1987) 52 DR 29 71 xxx Table of Cases Bailey and Smith [1993] 3 All ER 513; [1993] Crim LR 861; (1993) The Times, 22 March, CA 692, 894 Bailey v Williamson (1873) LR 8 QB 118 435 Baldry v Director of Public Prosecutions of Mauritius [1983] 2 AC 297; [1982] 3 All ER 973 257 Balfour v Foreign and Commonwealth Office [1994] 2 All ER 588, CA 722, 956 Barber and Others v NCR (Manufacturing) Ltd [1993] IRLR 95 1025 Barbéra, Messegué and Jabardo, Judgment of 6 December 1988, (1988) 11 HRR 360; A 14 6 (2) (1989) 33, 62, 63, 851, 852, 859 Barclay v UK (1999) Appl No 35712/97 539–41, 543 Barlow Clowes Gilt Managers v Clowes (1990) The Times, 2 February Bansal [1985] Crim LR 151 243 1063 Barreto v Portugal [1996] 26EHRLR 214 68 Barrett v Enfield LBC [1999] 3 All ER 193; (1999) 62 MLR 159 60 Barry v Midland Bank [1999] 1 WLR 1465 1012 Barrymore v NGN Ltd [1997] FSR 600 567, 569, 576, 578, 582, 592 Basher v Director of Public Prosecutions (1993) (unreported) 773 Bates v UK, Appl No 26280/95 185, 544 Bavin v The NHS Trust Pensions Agency and Secretary of State for Health [1999] ICR 1192 1002 Baynton v Saurus [1999] IRLR 604 1006 Beales [1991] Crim LR 118 839, 876 Beatty v Gillbanks (1882) 9 QBD 308 447, 497, 499, 503, 504 Beck ex p Daily Telegraph [1993] 2 All ER 177 243 Beldjoudi v France, A 234–A (1992); (1992) 14 EHRR 801 957 Belgian Linguistic Case (No 2), Judgment of 23 July 1968, A 6; (1968) 1 EHRR 252 60, 82, 728 Belgian Prostitute, Re [1976] 2 CMLR 527 947 Belilos v Switzerland (1988) EHRR 466 89 Bell v Devon and Cornwall Police Authority [1978] IRLR 283 Belnavis [1997] 3 SCR 341 1053 872 Benham v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 293 250, 513, 970 Bentham v UK, B 80, para 10 (1983) 59, 720 Benthem v Netherlands (1985) 8 EHRR 1 61 Bentley v Brudzinski [1982] Crim LR 825; (1982) The Times, 3 March Benveniste v University of Southampton [1989] IRLR 122 Berger v NY 388 US 41(1967) 761, 762 1023 673 Bernstein v Skyviews & General Ltd [1978] QB 479; [1977] 2 All ER 902 636 Berrehab Case (1988) 11 EHRR 322 958 xxxi Civil Liberties and Human Rights Berry [1988] Crim LR 325 1065 Beycan [1990] Crim LR 185 820 Bibby v Chief Constable of Essex (2000) The Times, 24 April 504 Big M Drug Mart Ltd (1985) 18 DLR (4th) 321 183 Biggs v Somerset CC [1996] 2 All ER 734; [1996] IRLR 203,CA 982 Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz [1986] CMLR 701 1006, 1007, 1013, 1017, 1022, 1023, 1025–27 Billam [1986] 1 All ER 985 1065 Birchall [1999] Crim LR 311 855 Birkenshaw v Haley (1974) 409 F Supp 13ED Mich 321 Birmingham City Council ex p EOC [1989] AC 1155; [1989] 1 All ER 769, HL 994, 1001, 1004 Birse v HM Advocate (2000) (unreported) 648 Bishopsgate Investment Management Ltd v Maxwell [1992] 2 All ER 856 847 Black v Director of Public Prosecutions (1995) (unreported) 765 Blackledge and Others (Ordtech) [1996] 1 Cr App R 326, CA 249 Bladet TromsØ and Stensaas v Norway (2000) 29 EHRR 125; (1999) 6 BHRC 599 222, 362 Blake [1991] Crim LR 119 839, 876 Boddington v British Transport Police [1999] 2 AC 143; [1998] 2 WLR 639 477 Bolam v Friern HMC [1957] 2 All ER 118 735, 736 Bolger v Youngs Drug Products Ltd [1983] 103 Ct 2875 13 Bolitho v Hackney Health Authority [1998] AC 232 735 Bolton Seven Case (2001) The Guardian, 27 July 740 Bonnard v Perryman [1891] 2 Ch 269, CA 248, 358 Bonsignore v Oberstadtdirektor of the City of Cologne [1975] ECR 297 947 Bookbinder v Tebbit (No 2) [1992] 1 WLR 217 366 Borowski v AG of Canada (1987) 39 DLR (4th) 731 734 Botta v Italy (1998) 26 EHRR 241 68, 983 Bouamar v Belgium, Judgment of 29 February, A 129 (1988); [1988] 11 EHRR 1 52, 777 Bouanimba v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1986] Imm AR 343 947 Bouchereau [1977] ECR 1999 947 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 2) [1999] 1 All ER 577 962 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 3) [1999] 2 WLR 827; [1999] 2 All ER 97, HL Bowden [2000] 2 All ER 418; (1999) The Times, 25 February Bowers v Hardwick[1986] 478 US 186 44, 960, 961 289, 845, 856, 857 739 Bowman v UK (1998) 25 EHRR 1 75 xxxii Table of Cases Boychuk v Symons Holdings Ltd [1977] IRLR 395 1053 Boyle v Rice, Judgment of 27 April 1988, A 131 71, 453 Bozanov France (1986) 9 EHRR 297 53, 55 Brailsford [1905] 2 KB 730 968 Brandenburg v Ohio (1969) 395 US 444 452 Brannigan and McBride v UK (1993) 17 EHRR 539; (1993) The Times, 28 May 36, 55, 88, 802, 803 Bray (1998) (unreported) 893 Breen v Chief Constable for Dumfries and Galloway (1997) The Times, 24 April 966 Brentwood Council ex p Peck [1998] CMLR 697 702 Brezenau and Francis [1989] Crim LR 650 832 Brickley and Kitson v Police (1988) Legal Action, July 460 Bridges v California 314 US 252 (1941) 259 Brind and McLaughlin v UK (1994) 18 EHRR CD 76 303 British Coal Corporation v Smith [1993] IRLR 308 1025 British Gas v Sharma [1991] IRLR 101 1046 British Steel Corporation v Granada Television [1981] AC 1096; [1981] 1 All ER 417, HL 578 Brixton Prison Governor ex p Soblen [1963] 2 QB 243 951, 960 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Barclay and Another (1997) 9 Admin LR 265; (1996) The Times, 11 October 556 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Granada TV Ltd (1993) The Times, 31 May; affd [1995] EMLR 163; (1994) The Times, 16 December, CA 556, 567, 589, 615 Broadmore Hospital Authority and Another v R [2000] 2 All ER 727 548 Brogan, Coyle, McFadden and Tracey v UK, Judgment of 29 November 1988, A 145; (1989) 11 EHRR 117 36, 55, 88, 112, 793, 799, 800, 802, 803 Brokdorf Case (1985) 69 B VerfGE 315 423 Broome v Cassell and Co [1972] AC 1027 910 Brosch [1988] Crim LR 743, CA 789 Brown [1993] 2 WLR 556; [1993] 2 All ER 75, HL 741, 742 Brown v Rentokil Ltd [1992] IRLR 302 996 Brown vStott [2001] 2 WLR 817; [2001] 2 All ER 97, PC 144, 145, 181, 182, 188, 189, 450, 858, 899, 902, 927 Brown v TNT Express Worldwide (UK) Ltd [2001] ICR 182 Brüggemann and Scheuten v Federal Republic of Germany (1975) 10 DR 100 1028 747 Brutus v Cozens [1973] AC 854; [1972] 2 All ER 1297; [1972] 3 WLR 521; (1973) 57Cr App R 538, HL 506, 507 xxxiii Civil Liberties and Human Rights Bryan v UK (1995) 21 EHRR 342 61 Bryce [1992] 4 All ER 567; (1992) 95 Cr App R 230; (1992) 142 NLJ 1161, CA 895 Buchholz, Judgment of 6 May 1981, A 42 61 Buckley v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 101 70 Bugdaycay v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1987] AC 514, HL 106, 937, 938, 940 Burden v Rigler [1911] 1 KB 337 435, 437 Burlingham [1995] 2 SCR 206 186, 872 Burns (1886) 16 Cox CC 333 316 Burton v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 135 71 Burton and Another v De Vere Hotels (1996) The Times, 3 October 1009 Butcher[1992] 2 NZLR 257 871 Butler [1992] 1 SCR 452 280, 737 CIN Properties Ltd v Rawlins [1995] 2 EGLR 130 454 CRE v Dutton [1989] WLR 17; [1989] 1 All ER 306, CA 1002 CRE ex p Westminster City Council [1984] IRLR 230 1003 Cable and Others v UK, Appl No 24436/94 (1999) The Times, 11 March 61 Caesar-Gordon ex p University of Liverpool (1990) 3 All ER 821 436 Caird (1970) 54 Cr App R 499, CA 518, 949 Calder (John) Publishing v Powell [1965] 1 QB 159; [1965] 1 ALL ER 159 282 Calder and Boyars [1969] 1 QB 151; [1968] 3 WLR 974; [1968] 3 All ER 644; [1968] 52 Cr App R 706, C A 282–84 Calder vRowntree Mackintosh Ltd [1993] IRLR 27 1022 Callis v Gunn [1964] 1 QB 495 874 Cambridge Health Authority ex p B [1995] WLR 898; (1995) TLR 159, CA 109, 966 Cambridgeshire County Council v R [1994] 2 FCR 973 398 Camelot Group Ltd v Centaur Communications [1998] EMLR 1; [1999] QB 124; [1998] 1 All ER 251, CA 263, 264 Camenzind v Switzerland, RJD 1997–III 2880 72 Campbell v UK (1992) 15 EHRR 137 72 Campbell and Another [1993] Crim LR 47, CA 850 Campbell and Cosans v UK, Judgment of 25 February 1982, A 48; (1982) 4 EHRR 293 45, 46, 82, 729 Campbell and Fell v UK, Judgment of 28 June 1984, A 80; (1985) 7 EHRR 165 Canale [1990] 91 Cr App R 1; [1990] All ER 187, CA Cantoni v France, para 35 (1996) RJD 1996-V 1614 (not yet published) 59, 411 879, 880 67, 442 Capon v DPP Case CO/3496/97 judgment 4 March 1998, LEXIS transcript, discussed by P Mead [1998] Crim LR 870 431, 450, 484, 486, 487, 489, 490 xxxiv Table of Cases Castells v Spain A 236; Judgment of 23 April 1992; (1992) 14 EHRR 445 76, 209, 422, 523 Castorina v Chief Constable of Surrey (1988) 138 NLJ 180, CA 785–87, 798 Caswell [1984] Crim LR 111 1064 Caunt (1947) 64 LQR 203 316 Central Criminal Court ex p Crook (1984) The Times, 8 November 242 Central Criminal Court ex p Francis and Francis [1989] AC 346; [1988] 3 All ER 375; [1988] 3 WLR 989, HL 643, 649 Central Independent Television [1994] Fam 192; [1994] 3 WLR 20, CA 547, 548, 588 Central Independent Television plc and Others, Re [1991] 1 All ER 347; [1991] 1 WLR 4 242 Cetin v Turkey (unreported) 908 Chahal v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 413; (1996) The Times, 28 November (1996) The Guardian, 16 November 47, 50, 53, 56, 716, 722–24, 953, 954, 956 Chalkley and Jeffries [1998] 2 All ER 155; [1998] 2 Cr App R 79; [1998] 3 WLR 146, CA 104, 105, 799, 869, 889, 892, 898, 926 Chandler v Director of Public Prosecutions [1964] AC 763; [1962] 3 All ER 142, HL 339 Channel 4 Television Co Ltd, In re (1988) The Times, 2 February; [1988] Crim LR 237 232 Chapman v Director of Public Prosecutions (1988) Cr App R 190; [1988] Crim LR 843 787 Chappel v UK (1989) 12 EHRR 1 71 Chappell v UK No 12587/86; (1988) 10 EHRR 510 444, 445, 447, 476 Chappell & Co Ltd v Columbia Gramophone Co [1914] 2 Ch 745 Chassagnou v France (1999) 7 BHRC 151, Judgment of 29 April 1999 563 158, 414 Cheall v Association of Professional Executive Clerical and Computer Staff [1983] 2 AC 180 398 Cheall v UK (1985) 8 EHRR 74 399 Chief Constable for Devon and Cornwall ex p CEGB [1982] QB 458 494 Chief Constable of Avon ex p Robinson [1989] All ER 15; [1989] 1 WLR 793 814 Chief Constable of Kent Constabulary ex p Kent Police Federation Joint Branch Board and Another (1999) The Times, 1 December 792, 797 Chief Constable of Lancashire ex p Parker and McGrath [1993] 2 WLR 428; [1993] 1 All ER 56; (1992) 142 NLJ 635 Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p AB [1997] 3 WLR 724, CA Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p Thorpe [1999] QB 396 xxxv 640, 642 616 548, 579 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Chief Constable of Sussex ex p International Ferry Traders Ltd [1999] 2 AC 418; [1999] 1 All ER 129 175, 187, 449, 490 Chief Constable of Warwickshire Constabulary ex p Fitzpatrick [1999] 1 WLR 564 640 Chief Constable of West Midlands Police ex p Wiley, Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire Police ex p Sunderland [1995] 1 AC 274; [1994] 3 All ER 420; (1995) 1 Cr App R 342, HL 366, 922 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Govell (1994) LEXIS transcript 896 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Khan (2001) The Times, 16 October; [2000] IRLR 324; [2000] ICR 1169, CA 1028, 1029 Chief Metropolitan Magistrates’ Court ex p Choudhury [1991] 1 QB 429; [1991] 1 All ER 306 114, 315–17, 322, 323 Chorherr v Austria A 266-B, para 23 (1993); (1994) 17 EHRR 358 67, 79, 220, 437, 438, 442, 443, 446, 454 Choudhary, Nadir v UK (1999) 1 EHRLR 522 681, 686 Choudhury v UK (1991) No 17349/1990; (1991) 12 HRLJ 172 315–17, 322, 323 Christian Lawyers Assoc of South Africa v The Minister of Health 1998 (11) BCLR 1434 734 Christians Against Racism and Fascism v UK (1984) 24 YBECHR 178; No 8440/78; 21 DR 138 79, 175, 439, 440, 443, 447, 458, 464, 476, 477, 479, 515 Christie v Leachinsky [1947] AC 573; [1947] 1 All ER 567, HL 789 Christie v UK (1993) No 21482/93, 78-A 78A DR E Com HR 119 33, 663, 665, 666, 680, 682, 683, 698, 708, 723 Christou [1992] QB 979; [1992] 4 All ER 559, CA 895, 897 Clarke v General Accident Fire and Life Assurance Corp plc [1998] 1WLR 1647 140 Clarke (No 2) [1964] 2 QB 315; [1963] 3 All ER 884, CA 517 Clarke v Eley IMI Kynoch Ltd [1983] ICR 703 1013 Clay Cross v Fletcher [1978] 1 WLR 1429; [1979] 1 All ER 474 1022 Clegg [1995] 2 WLR 80 43 Clerkenwell Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate ex p The Telegraph and Others [1993] 2 All ER 183; (1992) The Times, 22 October 242 Clowser v Chaplin (1981) 72 Cr App R 342 533 Clymo v Wandsworth LBC [1989] ICR 250 1014 Cochrane, Re 8 Dowl 630 1064 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41 Coffin v Smith (1980) Cr App R 221 374, 566, 569, 573, 575, 577 762 Cogan and Leake [1976] QB 217 1065 Cohen v California (1971) 403 US 15 206, 321 xxxvi Table of Cases Collin v Smith (1978) 578 F 2d 1197, 7th Cir (1978) 436 US 953; (1978) 439 US 916 Collins and Wilcock [1984] 3 All ER 374; [1984] 1 WLR 1172 322 758, 761 Colloza v Italy, Judgment of 12 February 1985, A 89; (1985) 7 EHRR 516 62 Colsey (1931) The Times, 9 May 258 Commission of EC v UK (1996) Case 222/94, 30 September; [1996] ECR-14025 Commission of European Communities v UK [1982] 3 CMLR 284 305 1018 Commission v France (Case 318/86) [1989] 3 CMLR 663; [1988] ECR 3559 1037, 1038, 1040, 1041, 1043 Condron v UK (2000) Judgment of 2 May; (2001) 31 EHRR 1 145, 872, 900 Condron and Another [1997] 1 Cr App R 185; (1997) 161 JP1; (1996) The Times, 4 November, CA 844, 845, 856, 857, 880 Conegate Ltd v Customs and Excise Commissioners [1987] QB 254; [1986] 2 All ER 688 290 Coney (1882) 8 QBD 534 741 Confait Case Report of the Inquiry by the Hon Sir Henry Fisher, HC 90 (1977–78) 754, 755, 818, 874 Constantine v Imperial Hotels [1944] KB 693 989 Continental Can Co v Minn 297 NW 2d 241 1009 Conway v Rimmer [1968] AC 910, HL 365, 367 Coolidge v New Hampshire 403 US 443 (1973) 637 Corelli v Wall (1906) 22 TLR 532 562 Cossey v UK, Judgment of 27 September 1990, A 184; (1990) 13 EHRR 622 37, 77, 80, 452, 538, 744 Costello-Roberts v UK, Judgment of 25 March 1993, A 247-C; (1993) 19 EHRR 112; (1993) The Times, 26 March 45, 730, 731 Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for Civil Service (GCHQ) [1985] AC 374; [1985] 3 WLR 1174; [1984] 3 All ER 935, HL 105, 107, 109, 411, 415, 523, 950, 969 Council of Civil Service Unions v UK (1987) No 11603/85, 50 DR 228; (1988) 10 EHRR 269 35, 398, 415 Cowan and Others [1996] QB 373; [1995] 4 All ER 939 844 Cox [1992] BMLR 38 733 Cox [1993] Crim LR 382; (1993) 96 Cr App R 464; (1992) The Times, 2 December 831, 835, 883 Coyne v UK, Judgment of 24 October 1997; RJD 1997–V 1842 CRE ex p Prestige Group plc [1984] 1 WLR 335, HL Creation Records Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd [1997] EMLR 444 Crémieux v France (1993) 16 EHRR 357 61 1050 574, 575, 589 72 Criminal Injuries Compensation Board ex p A [1992] COD 379 Cröcher and Möller v Switzerland DR 34 (1983); (1984) 6 EHRR 345 xxxvii 244 35 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Director of Public Prosecutions [1988] QB 532; [1988] 1 All ER 315 643 Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Metropolitan Police Commissioner (1984) 148 JP 449 286, 287 Cyprus v Turkey (1976) 4 EHRR 482 70 D v UK (1998) 24 EHRR 423 44, 957 Dagenais v Canadian Broadcasting Corpn (1995) 120 DLR (4th) 12 219 Daily Express Case (1981) The Times, 19 December 239, 240 Dallison v Caffrey [1965] 1 QB 348; [1964] 3 WLR 385, CA 785 Darbo v Director of Public Prosecutions [1992] Crim LR 56; (1992) The Times, 4 July 286 Darrach (2000) 191 DLR (4th) 539 181 Davis, Rowe and Johnson [1993] 1 WLR 613 369, 709 Davison [1988] Crim LR 442 876 Dawkins v Department of Environment [1993] ICR 517; [1993] IRLR 284; 1002 De Geillustreede Pers v Netherlands No 5178/71; 8 DR 5 (1976) 439 De Geouffre de la Pradelle v France (1993) HRLJ 276 84 De Haes and Gijsels v Belgium (1997) 25 EHRR 1 62 De Jong, Baljet and Van de Brink, Judgment of 22 May 1984, A 77; (1984) 8 EHRR 20 57 De Souza v Automobile Association [1986] ICR 514 1007, 1033 De Vargattirgah v France (1981) Appl 9559/81 29 De Wilde, Ooms and Versyp v Belgium (1971) A12 p 33 72 Dekkerv VJV Centrum [1991] IRLR 27 996, 998 Delaney (1989) 88 Cr App R 338; (1988) The Times, 20 August, CA 809, 878, 889 Delcourt v Belgium All (1970) 1 EHRR 355 900 Delta v France (1993) 16 EHRR 574 514 Demicoli v Malta A 210 (1991) 921 Department of Health ex p Source Informatics Ltd [2000] 2 WLR 953; (2000) The Times, 21 January, CA 536, 566, 593 Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers [1992] 3 All ER 65, CA; [1993] AC 534; [1993] 1 All ER 1011; [1992] 3 WLR 28, HL 13, 103, 107, 114, 128, 151, 203, 210, 213, 434, 448, 622 Director of GCHQ ex p Hodges (1988) COD 123; (1988) The Times, 26 July 1054 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Kebilene and Others [1999] 4 All ER 801; [1999] 3 WLR 372, HL 173, 185–87, 189, 190, 411, 447, 448, 450, 451, 524, 525, 540, 544, 545, 899 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Treadaway (1997) The Times, 18 November 917 Director of Public Prosecutions v A and BC Chewing Gum Ltd [1968] 1 QB 159 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Barnard and Others (1999) The Times, 9 November 484 xxxviii Table of Cases Director of Public Prosecutions v Billington [1988] 1 All ER 435; (1988) Cr App R 68 Director of Public Prosecutions v Blake [1989] 1 WLR 432, CA 883 758, 822, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Capon: see Capon v DPP— Director of Public Prosecutions v Channel Four Television Co Ltd and Another [1993] 2 All ER 517; (1992) The Times, 14 September 265 Director of Public Prosecutions v Clarke [1992] Crim LR 60 507, 508, 511, 512 Director of Public Prosecutions v Fidler [1992] 1 WLR 91 506, 507 Director of Public Prosecutions v Hawkins [1988] 1 WLR 1166; [1988] 3 All ER 673 789 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jones and Lloyd [1997] 2 All ER 119, DC; [1999] 2 WLR 625; [1999] 2 All ER 257; [1999] AC 240, HL 104, 105, 435, 448, 453, 454, 465, 467, 470, 472, 474–77, 480, 481 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jordan [1977] AC 699, HL 285, 286 Director of Public Prosecutions v Morgan [1976] AC 182 596 Director of Public Prosecutions v Moseley, Woodling and Selvanayagam, Judgment of 9 June 1999; the Times 23 June 1999; [1999] J Civ Lib 390 104, 105, 514–16 Director of Public Prosecutions v Orum [1988] 3 All ER 449 506 Director of Public Prosecutions v Rouse; Same v Davis (1992) Cr App R 185 758, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Whyte [1972] AC 849; [1972] 3 All ER 12, HL 283, 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Wilson [1991] Crim LR 441 785, 891 Director of the Serious Fraud Office ex p Smith [1993] AC 1; [1992] 3 WLR 66 847 Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club ex p Aga Khan [1993] 1 WLR 909 158, 159 Djeroud v France (1991) A 191–B 747, 957 Doe v Bolton (1973) 410 US 179; [1973] 35 L E 2d 201 732 Doncaster and Retford Co-operative Societies Agreement, Re [1960] LR 2 PC 237 Donelly v Jackman (1970) Cr App R 229; [1970] 1 WLR 562 761 Donnelly v UK (1973) Appl 5577–82/72; (1973) YB XVI 26 Donovan [1934] 2 KB 498 741 Doorson v Netherlands (1996) 22 EHRR 330 245, 370, 514 Dornanv Belfast County Council [1990] IRLR 179 995, 1003 Douglas (Michael, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Northern and Shell plc) v Hello!

Table of Cases Attorney General v BBC, Same v Hat Trick Productions Ltd (1996) The Times, 26 July 236 Attorney General v Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd [1998] 4 All ER 49 215, 225, 233 Attorney General v English (Dr Arthur’s case) [1983] 1 AC 116; [1982] 2 All ER 903, HL 102, 234, 238, 239 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 1) (Spycatcher litigation) [1987] 3 All ER 316; [1987] 1 WLR 1248, CA and HL 128, 357, 548, 577, 616, 622, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers (No 2) (Spycatcher litigation) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 114, 210, 339, 358–60, 363, 364, 374, 536, 566, 567, 572, 574–80, 582, 585, 589, 616, 622, 631, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers No 3 [1992] 1 WLR 874; [1992] 3 All ER 38, CA 237, 240, 243 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers [1999] EMLR 904 234 Attorney General v Hislop and Pressdram [1991] 1 QB 514; [1991] 1 All ER 911; [1991] 2 WLR 219, CA 231, 234, 235, 237, 239, 245, 248, 251 Attorney General v Independent TV News and Others [1995] 2 All ER 370 Attorney General v Jonathan Cape [1976] QB 752 235 355, 578, 580 Attorney General v Leveller Magazine Ltd [1979] AC 440; [1979] 2 WLR 247, HL 241, 244 Attorney General v MGN [1997] 1 All ER 456 232–34 Attorney General v Morgan [1998] EMLR 294 236 Attorney General v New Statesman [1981] QB 1 260 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers Ltd (1983) The Times, 12 February 236, 237 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers [1987] 1 QB 1; [1986] 2 All ER 833; [1986] 3 WLR 365, CA 225, 233, 235 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers plc [1989] QB 110; [1988] 3 WLR 163; [1988] 2 All ER 906 245–47, 256 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers (1999) (unreported) 235 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (1990) The Times, 28 February 245, 249, 363 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (Spycatcher) [1988] Ch 333; [1987] 3 All ER 276; [1988] 3 WLR 942, CA 102, 246, 249–52, 264, 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (No 2) (Spycatcher) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc and Others [1997] 3 All ER 159; (1997) The Times, 2 May, CA xxix 249 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Attorney General v Observer and Guardian Newspapers Ltd, Re (1989) The Times, 9 May 245 Attorney General v Sport Newspapers Ltd [1991] 1 WLR 1194 247, 248 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1974] AC 273; [1973] 3 All ER 54; [1973] 3 WLR 298, HL 32, 224, 228, 256 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] 1 AC 191; [1991] 2 All ER 398; [1991] 2 WLR 994, HL 32, 227, 363, 591, 651 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd (Tomlinson case) (2001) EMLR 19 361, 567, 568 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd and Others (1983) The Times, 12 February, DC 32, 232, 234, 239, 249, 250 Attorney General v TVS Television, Attorney General v HW Southey & Sons (1989) The Times, 7 July 240 Attorney General ex rel McWhirter v IBA [1973] QB 629, CA 289 Attorney General for New South Wales v Trethowan [1932] AC 526 132 Attorney General of Hong Kong v Lee Kwong-Kut [1993] AC 951 187 Attorney General’s Reference (No 5 of 1980) [1980] 3 All ER 816, CA 281 Attorney General’s Reference (No 7 of 1989) (1990) 12 Cr App R (S) 1 Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 1999) [2001] 2 WLR 56, HL Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 2000) [2001] Crim LR 645 Atwood v Atwood Finch’s Chancery Precedents 492 1065 710, 892, 906, 926 905 1064 Aujla [1998] 2 Cr App R 16 686 Austria v Italy (1961) No 788/60 4 YB 112 902 Autronic AG v Switzerland (1990) 12 EHRR 485 Averill v UK (2001) 31 EHRR 36; (2000) The Times, 20 June Aydin v Turkey (1997) 25 EHRR 251 35 63, 861–63, 901 45 Aylor-Davis v France (1994) 76-A DR 164 964 Aziz v Trinity St Taxis [1988] WLR 79; [1988] 2 All ER 860,CA B (a minor), Re [1981] 1 WLR 1421, CA 1028, 1029 40 B v France (1992) 16 EHRR 1; (1992) 13 HRLJ 358 B v UK (1983) 34 DR 68; (1983) 6 EHRR 354 68, 77, 398, 744 70, 1057 B v UK A 136–ZD (1988) 914 BBC ex p Owen [1985] QB 1153 559, 951 BBC Scotland v UK (1998) 25 EHRR CD 179 221, 223–25, 232 Badek and Others v Landesanwalt bein Staatgerichtshof des Landes Hessen (Case C-158/97) [2000] All ER (EC) 289 1042 Badham [1987] Crim LR 202 645 Baggs v UK (1987) 52 DR 29 71 xxx Table of Cases Bailey and Smith [1993] 3 All ER 513; [1993] Crim LR 861; (1993) The Times, 22 March, CA 692, 894 Bailey v Williamson (1873) LR 8 QB 118 435 Baldry v Director of Public Prosecutions of Mauritius [1983] 2 AC 297; [1982] 3 All ER 973 257 Balfour v Foreign and Commonwealth Office [1994] 2 All ER 588, CA 722, 956 Barber and Others v NCR (Manufacturing) Ltd [1993] IRLR 95 1025 Barbéra, Messegué and Jabardo, Judgment of 6 December 1988, (1988) 11 HRR 360; A 14 6 (2) (1989) 33, 62, 63, 851, 852, 859 Barclay v UK (1999) Appl No 35712/97 539–41, 543 Barlow Clowes Gilt Managers v Clowes (1990) The Times, 2 February Bansal [1985] Crim LR 151 243 1063 Barreto v Portugal [1996] 26EHRLR 214 68 Barrett v Enfield LBC [1999] 3 All ER 193; (1999) 62 MLR 159 60 Barry v Midland Bank [1999] 1 WLR 1465 1012 Barrymore v NGN Ltd [1997] FSR 600 567, 569, 576, 578, 582, 592 Basher v Director of Public Prosecutions (1993) (unreported) 773 Bates v UK, Appl No 26280/95 185, 544 Bavin v The NHS Trust Pensions Agency and Secretary of State for Health [1999] ICR 1192 1002 Baynton v Saurus [1999] IRLR 604 1006 Beales [1991] Crim LR 118 839, 876 Beatty v Gillbanks (1882) 9 QBD 308 447, 497, 499, 503, 504 Beck ex p Daily Telegraph [1993] 2 All ER 177 243 Beldjoudi v France, A 234–A (1992); (1992) 14 EHRR 801 957 Belgian Linguistic Case (No 2), Judgment of 23 July 1968, A 6; (1968) 1 EHRR 252 60, 82, 728 Belgian Prostitute, Re [1976] 2 CMLR 527 947 Belilos v Switzerland (1988) EHRR 466 89 Bell v Devon and Cornwall Police Authority [1978] IRLR 283 Belnavis [1997] 3 SCR 341 1053 872 Benham v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 293 250, 513, 970 Bentham v UK, B 80, para 10 (1983) 59, 720 Benthem v Netherlands (1985) 8 EHRR 1 61 Bentley v Brudzinski [1982] Crim LR 825; (1982) The Times, 3 March Benveniste v University of Southampton [1989] IRLR 122 Berger v NY 388 US 41(1967) 761, 762 1023 673 Bernstein v Skyviews & General Ltd [1978] QB 479; [1977] 2 All ER 902 636 Berrehab Case (1988) 11 EHRR 322 958 xxxi Civil Liberties and Human Rights Berry [1988] Crim LR 325 1065 Beycan [1990] Crim LR 185 820 Bibby v Chief Constable of Essex (2000) The Times, 24 April 504 Big M Drug Mart Ltd (1985) 18 DLR (4th) 321 183 Biggs v Somerset CC [1996] 2 All ER 734; [1996] IRLR 203,CA 982 Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz [1986] CMLR 701 1006, 1007, 1013, 1017, 1022, 1023, 1025–27 Billam [1986] 1 All ER 985 1065 Birchall [1999] Crim LR 311 855 Birkenshaw v Haley (1974) 409 F Supp 13ED Mich 321 Birmingham City Council ex p EOC [1989] AC 1155; [1989] 1 All ER 769, HL 994, 1001, 1004 Birse v HM Advocate (2000) (unreported) 648 Bishopsgate Investment Management Ltd v Maxwell [1992] 2 All ER 856 847 Black v Director of Public Prosecutions (1995) (unreported) 765 Blackledge and Others (Ordtech) [1996] 1 Cr App R 326, CA 249 Bladet TromsØ and Stensaas v Norway (2000) 29 EHRR 125; (1999) 6 BHRC 599 222, 362 Blake [1991] Crim LR 119 839, 876 Boddington v British Transport Police [1999] 2 AC 143; [1998] 2 WLR 639 477 Bolam v Friern HMC [1957] 2 All ER 118 735, 736 Bolger v Youngs Drug Products Ltd [1983] 103 Ct 2875 13 Bolitho v Hackney Health Authority [1998] AC 232 735 Bolton Seven Case (2001) The Guardian, 27 July 740 Bonnard v Perryman [1891] 2 Ch 269, CA 248, 358 Bonsignore v Oberstadtdirektor of the City of Cologne [1975] ECR 297 947 Bookbinder v Tebbit (No 2) [1992] 1 WLR 217 366 Borowski v AG of Canada (1987) 39 DLR (4th) 731 734 Botta v Italy (1998) 26 EHRR 241 68, 983 Bouamar v Belgium, Judgment of 29 February, A 129 (1988); [1988] 11 EHRR 1 52, 777 Bouanimba v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1986] Imm AR 343 947 Bouchereau [1977] ECR 1999 947 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 2) [1999] 1 All ER 577 962 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 3) [1999] 2 WLR 827; [1999] 2 All ER 97, HL Bowden [2000] 2 All ER 418; (1999) The Times, 25 February Bowers v Hardwick[1986] 478 US 186 44, 960, 961 289, 845, 856, 857 739 Bowman v UK (1998) 25 EHRR 1 75 xxxii Table of Cases Boychuk v Symons Holdings Ltd [1977] IRLR 395 1053 Boyle v Rice, Judgment of 27 April 1988, A 131 71, 453 Bozanov France (1986) 9 EHRR 297 53, 55 Brailsford [1905] 2 KB 730 968 Brandenburg v Ohio (1969) 395 US 444 452 Brannigan and McBride v UK (1993) 17 EHRR 539; (1993) The Times, 28 May 36, 55, 88, 802, 803 Bray (1998) (unreported) 893 Breen v Chief Constable for Dumfries and Galloway (1997) The Times, 24 April 966 Brentwood Council ex p Peck [1998] CMLR 697 702 Brezenau and Francis [1989] Crim LR 650 832 Brickley and Kitson v Police (1988) Legal Action, July 460 Bridges v California 314 US 252 (1941) 259 Brind and McLaughlin v UK (1994) 18 EHRR CD 76 303 British Coal Corporation v Smith [1993] IRLR 308 1025 British Gas v Sharma [1991] IRLR 101 1046 British Steel Corporation v Granada Television [1981] AC 1096; [1981] 1 All ER 417, HL 578 Brixton Prison Governor ex p Soblen [1963] 2 QB 243 951, 960 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Barclay and Another (1997) 9 Admin LR 265; (1996) The Times, 11 October 556 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Granada TV Ltd (1993) The Times, 31 May; affd [1995] EMLR 163; (1994) The Times, 16 December, CA 556, 567, 589, 615 Broadmore Hospital Authority and Another v R [2000] 2 All ER 727 548 Brogan, Coyle, McFadden and Tracey v UK, Judgment of 29 November 1988, A 145; (1989) 11 EHRR 117 36, 55, 88, 112, 793, 799, 800, 802, 803 Brokdorf Case (1985) 69 B VerfGE 315 423 Broome v Cassell and Co [1972] AC 1027 910 Brosch [1988] Crim LR 743, CA 789 Brown [1993] 2 WLR 556; [1993] 2 All ER 75, HL 741, 742 Brown v Rentokil Ltd [1992] IRLR 302 996 Brown vStott [2001] 2 WLR 817; [2001] 2 All ER 97, PC 144, 145, 181, 182, 188, 189, 450, 858, 899, 902, 927 Brown v TNT Express Worldwide (UK) Ltd [2001] ICR 182 Brüggemann and Scheuten v Federal Republic of Germany (1975) 10 DR 100 1028 747 Brutus v Cozens [1973] AC 854; [1972] 2 All ER 1297; [1972] 3 WLR 521; (1973) 57Cr App R 538, HL 506, 507 xxxiii Civil Liberties and Human Rights Bryan v UK (1995) 21 EHRR 342 61 Bryce [1992] 4 All ER 567; (1992) 95 Cr App R 230; (1992) 142 NLJ 1161, CA 895 Buchholz, Judgment of 6 May 1981, A 42 61 Buckley v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 101 70 Bugdaycay v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1987] AC 514, HL 106, 937, 938, 940 Burden v Rigler [1911] 1 KB 337 435, 437 Burlingham [1995] 2 SCR 206 186, 872 Burns (1886) 16 Cox CC 333 316 Burton v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 135 71 Burton and Another v De Vere Hotels (1996) The Times, 3 October 1009 Butcher[1992] 2 NZLR 257 871 Butler [1992] 1 SCR 452 280, 737 CIN Properties Ltd v Rawlins [1995] 2 EGLR 130 454 CRE v Dutton [1989] WLR 17; [1989] 1 All ER 306, CA 1002 CRE ex p Westminster City Council [1984] IRLR 230 1003 Cable and Others v UK, Appl No 24436/94 (1999) The Times, 11 March 61 Caesar-Gordon ex p University of Liverpool (1990) 3 All ER 821 436 Caird (1970) 54 Cr App R 499, CA 518, 949 Calder (John) Publishing v Powell [1965] 1 QB 159; [1965] 1 ALL ER 159 282 Calder and Boyars [1969] 1 QB 151; [1968] 3 WLR 974; [1968] 3 All ER 644; [1968] 52 Cr App R 706, C A 282–84 Calder vRowntree Mackintosh Ltd [1993] IRLR 27 1022 Callis v Gunn [1964] 1 QB 495 874 Cambridge Health Authority ex p B [1995] WLR 898; (1995) TLR 159, CA 109, 966 Cambridgeshire County Council v R [1994] 2 FCR 973 398 Camelot Group Ltd v Centaur Communications [1998] EMLR 1; [1999] QB 124; [1998] 1 All ER 251, CA 263, 264 Camenzind v Switzerland, RJD 1997–III 2880 72 Campbell v UK (1992) 15 EHRR 137 72 Campbell and Another [1993] Crim LR 47, CA 850 Campbell and Cosans v UK, Judgment of 25 February 1982, A 48; (1982) 4 EHRR 293 45, 46, 82, 729 Campbell and Fell v UK, Judgment of 28 June 1984, A 80; (1985) 7 EHRR 165 Canale [1990] 91 Cr App R 1; [1990] All ER 187, CA Cantoni v France, para 35 (1996) RJD 1996-V 1614 (not yet published) 59, 411 879, 880 67, 442 Capon v DPP Case CO/3496/97 judgment 4 March 1998, LEXIS transcript, discussed by P Mead [1998] Crim LR 870 431, 450, 484, 486, 487, 489, 490 xxxiv Table of Cases Castells v Spain A 236; Judgment of 23 April 1992; (1992) 14 EHRR 445 76, 209, 422, 523 Castorina v Chief Constable of Surrey (1988) 138 NLJ 180, CA 785–87, 798 Caswell [1984] Crim LR 111 1064 Caunt (1947) 64 LQR 203 316 Central Criminal Court ex p Crook (1984) The Times, 8 November 242 Central Criminal Court ex p Francis and Francis [1989] AC 346; [1988] 3 All ER 375; [1988] 3 WLR 989, HL 643, 649 Central Independent Television [1994] Fam 192; [1994] 3 WLR 20, CA 547, 548, 588 Central Independent Television plc and Others, Re [1991] 1 All ER 347; [1991] 1 WLR 4 242 Cetin v Turkey (unreported) 908 Chahal v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 413; (1996) The Times, 28 November (1996) The Guardian, 16 November 47, 50, 53, 56, 716, 722–24, 953, 954, 956 Chalkley and Jeffries [1998] 2 All ER 155; [1998] 2 Cr App R 79; [1998] 3 WLR 146, CA 104, 105, 799, 869, 889, 892, 898, 926 Chandler v Director of Public Prosecutions [1964] AC 763; [1962] 3 All ER 142, HL 339 Channel 4 Television Co Ltd, In re (1988) The Times, 2 February; [1988] Crim LR 237 232 Chapman v Director of Public Prosecutions (1988) Cr App R 190; [1988] Crim LR 843 787 Chappel v UK (1989) 12 EHRR 1 71 Chappell v UK No 12587/86; (1988) 10 EHRR 510 444, 445, 447, 476 Chappell & Co Ltd v Columbia Gramophone Co [1914] 2 Ch 745 Chassagnou v France (1999) 7 BHRC 151, Judgment of 29 April 1999 563 158, 414 Cheall v Association of Professional Executive Clerical and Computer Staff [1983] 2 AC 180 398 Cheall v UK (1985) 8 EHRR 74 399 Chief Constable for Devon and Cornwall ex p CEGB [1982] QB 458 494 Chief Constable of Avon ex p Robinson [1989] All ER 15; [1989] 1 WLR 793 814 Chief Constable of Kent Constabulary ex p Kent Police Federation Joint Branch Board and Another (1999) The Times, 1 December 792, 797 Chief Constable of Lancashire ex p Parker and McGrath [1993] 2 WLR 428; [1993] 1 All ER 56; (1992) 142 NLJ 635 Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p AB [1997] 3 WLR 724, CA Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p Thorpe [1999] QB 396 xxxv 640, 642 616 548, 579 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Chief Constable of Sussex ex p International Ferry Traders Ltd [1999] 2 AC 418; [1999] 1 All ER 129 175, 187, 449, 490 Chief Constable of Warwickshire Constabulary ex p Fitzpatrick [1999] 1 WLR 564 640 Chief Constable of West Midlands Police ex p Wiley, Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire Police ex p Sunderland [1995] 1 AC 274; [1994] 3 All ER 420; (1995) 1 Cr App R 342, HL 366, 922 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Govell (1994) LEXIS transcript 896 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Khan (2001) The Times, 16 October; [2000] IRLR 324; [2000] ICR 1169, CA 1028, 1029 Chief Metropolitan Magistrates’ Court ex p Choudhury [1991] 1 QB 429; [1991] 1 All ER 306 114, 315–17, 322, 323 Chorherr v Austria A 266-B, para 23 (1993); (1994) 17 EHRR 358 67, 79, 220, 437, 438, 442, 443, 446, 454 Choudhary, Nadir v UK (1999) 1 EHRLR 522 681, 686 Choudhury v UK (1991) No 17349/1990; (1991) 12 HRLJ 172 315–17, 322, 323 Christian Lawyers Assoc of South Africa v The Minister of Health 1998 (11) BCLR 1434 734 Christians Against Racism and Fascism v UK (1984) 24 YBECHR 178; No 8440/78; 21 DR 138 79, 175, 439, 440, 443, 447, 458, 464, 476, 477, 479, 515 Christie v Leachinsky [1947] AC 573; [1947] 1 All ER 567, HL 789 Christie v UK (1993) No 21482/93, 78-A 78A DR E Com HR 119 33, 663, 665, 666, 680, 682, 683, 698, 708, 723 Christou [1992] QB 979; [1992] 4 All ER 559, CA 895, 897 Clarke v General Accident Fire and Life Assurance Corp plc [1998] 1WLR 1647 140 Clarke (No 2) [1964] 2 QB 315; [1963] 3 All ER 884, CA 517 Clarke v Eley IMI Kynoch Ltd [1983] ICR 703 1013 Clay Cross v Fletcher [1978] 1 WLR 1429; [1979] 1 All ER 474 1022 Clegg [1995] 2 WLR 80 43 Clerkenwell Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate ex p The Telegraph and Others [1993] 2 All ER 183; (1992) The Times, 22 October 242 Clowser v Chaplin (1981) 72 Cr App R 342 533 Clymo v Wandsworth LBC [1989] ICR 250 1014 Cochrane, Re 8 Dowl 630 1064 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41 Coffin v Smith (1980) Cr App R 221 374, 566, 569, 573, 575, 577 762 Cogan and Leake [1976] QB 217 1065 Cohen v California (1971) 403 US 15 206, 321 xxxvi Table of Cases Collin v Smith (1978) 578 F 2d 1197, 7th Cir (1978) 436 US 953; (1978) 439 US 916 Collins and Wilcock [1984] 3 All ER 374; [1984] 1 WLR 1172 322 758, 761 Colloza v Italy, Judgment of 12 February 1985, A 89; (1985) 7 EHRR 516 62 Colsey (1931) The Times, 9 May 258 Commission of EC v UK (1996) Case 222/94, 30 September; [1996] ECR-14025 Commission of European Communities v UK [1982] 3 CMLR 284 305 1018 Commission v France (Case 318/86) [1989] 3 CMLR 663; [1988] ECR 3559 1037, 1038, 1040, 1041, 1043 Condron v UK (2000) Judgment of 2 May; (2001) 31 EHRR 1 145, 872, 900 Condron and Another [1997] 1 Cr App R 185; (1997) 161 JP1; (1996) The Times, 4 November, CA 844, 845, 856, 857, 880 Conegate Ltd v Customs and Excise Commissioners [1987] QB 254; [1986] 2 All ER 688 290 Coney (1882) 8 QBD 534 741 Confait Case Report of the Inquiry by the Hon Sir Henry Fisher, HC 90 (1977–78) 754, 755, 818, 874 Constantine v Imperial Hotels [1944] KB 693 989 Continental Can Co v Minn 297 NW 2d 241 1009 Conway v Rimmer [1968] AC 910, HL 365, 367 Coolidge v New Hampshire 403 US 443 (1973) 637 Corelli v Wall (1906) 22 TLR 532 562 Cossey v UK, Judgment of 27 September 1990, A 184; (1990) 13 EHRR 622 37, 77, 80, 452, 538, 744 Costello-Roberts v UK, Judgment of 25 March 1993, A 247-C; (1993) 19 EHRR 112; (1993) The Times, 26 March 45, 730, 731 Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for Civil Service (GCHQ) [1985] AC 374; [1985] 3 WLR 1174; [1984] 3 All ER 935, HL 105, 107, 109, 411, 415, 523, 950, 969 Council of Civil Service Unions v UK (1987) No 11603/85, 50 DR 228; (1988) 10 EHRR 269 35, 398, 415 Cowan and Others [1996] QB 373; [1995] 4 All ER 939 844 Cox [1992] BMLR 38 733 Cox [1993] Crim LR 382; (1993) 96 Cr App R 464; (1992) The Times, 2 December 831, 835, 883 Coyne v UK, Judgment of 24 October 1997; RJD 1997–V 1842 CRE ex p Prestige Group plc [1984] 1 WLR 335, HL Creation Records Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd [1997] EMLR 444 Crémieux v France (1993) 16 EHRR 357 61 1050 574, 575, 589 72 Criminal Injuries Compensation Board ex p A [1992] COD 379 Cröcher and Möller v Switzerland DR 34 (1983); (1984) 6 EHRR 345 xxxvii 244 35 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Director of Public Prosecutions [1988] QB 532; [1988] 1 All ER 315 643 Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Metropolitan Police Commissioner (1984) 148 JP 449 286, 287 Cyprus v Turkey (1976) 4 EHRR 482 70 D v UK (1998) 24 EHRR 423 44, 957 Dagenais v Canadian Broadcasting Corpn (1995) 120 DLR (4th) 12 219 Daily Express Case (1981) The Times, 19 December 239, 240 Dallison v Caffrey [1965] 1 QB 348; [1964] 3 WLR 385, CA 785 Darbo v Director of Public Prosecutions [1992] Crim LR 56; (1992) The Times, 4 July 286 Darrach (2000) 191 DLR (4th) 539 181 Davis, Rowe and Johnson [1993] 1 WLR 613 369, 709 Davison [1988] Crim LR 442 876 Dawkins v Department of Environment [1993] ICR 517; [1993] IRLR 284; 1002 De Geillustreede Pers v Netherlands No 5178/71; 8 DR 5 (1976) 439 De Geouffre de la Pradelle v France (1993) HRLJ 276 84 De Haes and Gijsels v Belgium (1997) 25 EHRR 1 62 De Jong, Baljet and Van de Brink, Judgment of 22 May 1984, A 77; (1984) 8 EHRR 20 57 De Souza v Automobile Association [1986] ICR 514 1007, 1033 De Vargattirgah v France (1981) Appl 9559/81 29 De Wilde, Ooms and Versyp v Belgium (1971) A12 p 33 72 Dekkerv VJV Centrum [1991] IRLR 27 996, 998 Delaney (1989) 88 Cr App R 338; (1988) The Times, 20 August, CA 809, 878, 889 Delcourt v Belgium All (1970) 1 EHRR 355 900 Delta v France (1993) 16 EHRR 574 514 Demicoli v Malta A 210 (1991) 921 Department of Health ex p Source Informatics Ltd [2000] 2 WLR 953; (2000) The Times, 21 January, CA 536, 566, 593 Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers [1992] 3 All ER 65, CA; [1993] AC 534; [1993] 1 All ER 1011; [1992] 3 WLR 28, HL 13, 103, 107, 114, 128, 151, 203, 210, 213, 434, 448, 622 Director of GCHQ ex p Hodges (1988) COD 123; (1988) The Times, 26 July 1054 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Kebilene and Others [1999] 4 All ER 801; [1999] 3 WLR 372, HL 173, 185–87, 189, 190, 411, 447, 448, 450, 451, 524, 525, 540, 544, 545, 899 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Treadaway (1997) The Times, 18 November 917 Director of Public Prosecutions v A and BC Chewing Gum Ltd [1968] 1 QB 159 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Barnard and Others (1999) The Times, 9 November 484 xxxviii Table of Cases Director of Public Prosecutions v Billington [1988] 1 All ER 435; (1988) Cr App R 68 Director of Public Prosecutions v Blake [1989] 1 WLR 432, CA 883 758, 822, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Capon: see Capon v DPP— Director of Public Prosecutions v Channel Four Television Co Ltd and Another [1993] 2 All ER 517; (1992) The Times, 14 September 265 Director of Public Prosecutions v Clarke [1992] Crim LR 60 507, 508, 511, 512 Director of Public Prosecutions v Fidler [1992] 1 WLR 91 506, 507 Director of Public Prosecutions v Hawkins [1988] 1 WLR 1166; [1988] 3 All ER 673 789 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jones and Lloyd [1997] 2 All ER 119, DC; [1999] 2 WLR 625; [1999] 2 All ER 257; [1999] AC 240, HL 104, 105, 435, 448, 453, 454, 465, 467, 470, 472, 474–77, 480, 481 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jordan [1977] AC 699, HL 285, 286 Director of Public Prosecutions v Morgan [1976] AC 182 596 Director of Public Prosecutions v Moseley, Woodling and Selvanayagam, Judgment of 9 June 1999; the Times 23 June 1999; [1999] J Civ Lib 390 104, 105, 514–16 Director of Public Prosecutions v Orum [1988] 3 All ER 449 506 Director of Public Prosecutions v Rouse; Same v Davis (1992) Cr App R 185 758, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Whyte [1972] AC 849; [1972] 3 All ER 12, HL 283, 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Wilson [1991] Crim LR 441 785, 891 Director of the Serious Fraud Office ex p Smith [1993] AC 1; [1992] 3 WLR 66 847 Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club ex p Aga Khan [1993] 1 WLR 909 158, 159 Djeroud v France (1991) A 191–B 747, 957 Doe v Bolton (1973) 410 US 179; [1973] 35 L E 2d 201 732 Doncaster and Retford Co-operative Societies Agreement, Re [1960] LR 2 PC 237 Donelly v Jackman (1970) Cr App R 229; [1970] 1 WLR 562 761 Donnelly v UK (1973) Appl 5577–82/72; (1973) YB XVI 26 Donovan [1934] 2 KB 498 741 Doorson v Netherlands (1996) 22 EHRR 330 245, 370, 514 Dornanv Belfast County Council [1990] IRLR 179 995, 1003 Douglas (Michael, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Northern and Shell plc) v Hello!

Table of Cases Attorney General v BBC, Same v Hat Trick Productions Ltd (1996) The Times, 26 July 236 Attorney General v Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd [1998] 4 All ER 49 215, 225, 233 Attorney General v English (Dr Arthur’s case) [1983] 1 AC 116; [1982] 2 All ER 903, HL 102, 234, 238, 239 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 1) (Spycatcher litigation) [1987] 3 All ER 316; [1987] 1 WLR 1248, CA and HL 128, 357, 548, 577, 616, 622, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers (No 2) (Spycatcher litigation) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 114, 210, 339, 358–60, 363, 364, 374, 536, 566, 567, 572, 574–80, 582, 585, 589, 616, 622, 631, 632 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers No 3 [1992] 1 WLR 874; [1992] 3 All ER 38, CA 237, 240, 243 Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers [1999] EMLR 904 234 Attorney General v Hislop and Pressdram [1991] 1 QB 514; [1991] 1 All ER 911; [1991] 2 WLR 219, CA 231, 234, 235, 237, 239, 245, 248, 251 Attorney General v Independent TV News and Others [1995] 2 All ER 370 Attorney General v Jonathan Cape [1976] QB 752 235 355, 578, 580 Attorney General v Leveller Magazine Ltd [1979] AC 440; [1979] 2 WLR 247, HL 241, 244 Attorney General v MGN [1997] 1 All ER 456 232–34 Attorney General v Morgan [1998] EMLR 294 236 Attorney General v New Statesman [1981] QB 1 260 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers Ltd (1983) The Times, 12 February 236, 237 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers [1987] 1 QB 1; [1986] 2 All ER 833; [1986] 3 WLR 365, CA 225, 233, 235 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers plc [1989] QB 110; [1988] 3 WLR 163; [1988] 2 All ER 906 245–47, 256 Attorney General v News Group Newspapers (1999) (unreported) 235 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (1990) The Times, 28 February 245, 249, 363 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (Spycatcher) [1988] Ch 333; [1987] 3 All ER 276; [1988] 3 WLR 942, CA 102, 246, 249–52, 264, 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc (No 2) (Spycatcher) [1990] 1 AC 109; [1990] 3 WLR 776; [1988] 3 All ER 545, HL 357–60, 363, 364 Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc and Others [1997] 3 All ER 159; (1997) The Times, 2 May, CA xxix 249 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Attorney General v Observer and Guardian Newspapers Ltd, Re (1989) The Times, 9 May 245 Attorney General v Sport Newspapers Ltd [1991] 1 WLR 1194 247, 248 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1974] AC 273; [1973] 3 All ER 54; [1973] 3 WLR 298, HL 32, 224, 228, 256 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] 1 AC 191; [1991] 2 All ER 398; [1991] 2 WLR 994, HL 32, 227, 363, 591, 651 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd (Tomlinson case) (2001) EMLR 19 361, 567, 568 Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd and Others (1983) The Times, 12 February, DC 32, 232, 234, 239, 249, 250 Attorney General v TVS Television, Attorney General v HW Southey & Sons (1989) The Times, 7 July 240 Attorney General ex rel McWhirter v IBA [1973] QB 629, CA 289 Attorney General for New South Wales v Trethowan [1932] AC 526 132 Attorney General of Hong Kong v Lee Kwong-Kut [1993] AC 951 187 Attorney General’s Reference (No 5 of 1980) [1980] 3 All ER 816, CA 281 Attorney General’s Reference (No 7 of 1989) (1990) 12 Cr App R (S) 1 Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 1999) [2001] 2 WLR 56, HL Attorney General’s Reference (No 3 of 2000) [2001] Crim LR 645 Atwood v Atwood Finch’s Chancery Precedents 492 1065 710, 892, 906, 926 905 1064 Aujla [1998] 2 Cr App R 16 686 Austria v Italy (1961) No 788/60 4 YB 112 902 Autronic AG v Switzerland (1990) 12 EHRR 485 Averill v UK (2001) 31 EHRR 36; (2000) The Times, 20 June Aydin v Turkey (1997) 25 EHRR 251 35 63, 861–63, 901 45 Aylor-Davis v France (1994) 76-A DR 164 964 Aziz v Trinity St Taxis [1988] WLR 79; [1988] 2 All ER 860,CA B (a minor), Re [1981] 1 WLR 1421, CA 1028, 1029 40 B v France (1992) 16 EHRR 1; (1992) 13 HRLJ 358 B v UK (1983) 34 DR 68; (1983) 6 EHRR 354 68, 77, 398, 744 70, 1057 B v UK A 136–ZD (1988) 914 BBC ex p Owen [1985] QB 1153 559, 951 BBC Scotland v UK (1998) 25 EHRR CD 179 221, 223–25, 232 Badek and Others v Landesanwalt bein Staatgerichtshof des Landes Hessen (Case C-158/97) [2000] All ER (EC) 289 1042 Badham [1987] Crim LR 202 645 Baggs v UK (1987) 52 DR 29 71 xxx Table of Cases Bailey and Smith [1993] 3 All ER 513; [1993] Crim LR 861; (1993) The Times, 22 March, CA 692, 894 Bailey v Williamson (1873) LR 8 QB 118 435 Baldry v Director of Public Prosecutions of Mauritius [1983] 2 AC 297; [1982] 3 All ER 973 257 Balfour v Foreign and Commonwealth Office [1994] 2 All ER 588, CA 722, 956 Barber and Others v NCR (Manufacturing) Ltd [1993] IRLR 95 1025 Barbéra, Messegué and Jabardo, Judgment of 6 December 1988, (1988) 11 HRR 360; A 14 6 (2) (1989) 33, 62, 63, 851, 852, 859 Barclay v UK (1999) Appl No 35712/97 539–41, 543 Barlow Clowes Gilt Managers v Clowes (1990) The Times, 2 February Bansal [1985] Crim LR 151 243 1063 Barreto v Portugal [1996] 26EHRLR 214 68 Barrett v Enfield LBC [1999] 3 All ER 193; (1999) 62 MLR 159 60 Barry v Midland Bank [1999] 1 WLR 1465 1012 Barrymore v NGN Ltd [1997] FSR 600 567, 569, 576, 578, 582, 592 Basher v Director of Public Prosecutions (1993) (unreported) 773 Bates v UK, Appl No 26280/95 185, 544 Bavin v The NHS Trust Pensions Agency and Secretary of State for Health [1999] ICR 1192 1002 Baynton v Saurus [1999] IRLR 604 1006 Beales [1991] Crim LR 118 839, 876 Beatty v Gillbanks (1882) 9 QBD 308 447, 497, 499, 503, 504 Beck ex p Daily Telegraph [1993] 2 All ER 177 243 Beldjoudi v France, A 234–A (1992); (1992) 14 EHRR 801 957 Belgian Linguistic Case (No 2), Judgment of 23 July 1968, A 6; (1968) 1 EHRR 252 60, 82, 728 Belgian Prostitute, Re [1976] 2 CMLR 527 947 Belilos v Switzerland (1988) EHRR 466 89 Bell v Devon and Cornwall Police Authority [1978] IRLR 283 Belnavis [1997] 3 SCR 341 1053 872 Benham v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 293 250, 513, 970 Bentham v UK, B 80, para 10 (1983) 59, 720 Benthem v Netherlands (1985) 8 EHRR 1 61 Bentley v Brudzinski [1982] Crim LR 825; (1982) The Times, 3 March Benveniste v University of Southampton [1989] IRLR 122 Berger v NY 388 US 41(1967) 761, 762 1023 673 Bernstein v Skyviews & General Ltd [1978] QB 479; [1977] 2 All ER 902 636 Berrehab Case (1988) 11 EHRR 322 958 xxxi Civil Liberties and Human Rights Berry [1988] Crim LR 325 1065 Beycan [1990] Crim LR 185 820 Bibby v Chief Constable of Essex (2000) The Times, 24 April 504 Big M Drug Mart Ltd (1985) 18 DLR (4th) 321 183 Biggs v Somerset CC [1996] 2 All ER 734; [1996] IRLR 203,CA 982 Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz [1986] CMLR 701 1006, 1007, 1013, 1017, 1022, 1023, 1025–27 Billam [1986] 1 All ER 985 1065 Birchall [1999] Crim LR 311 855 Birkenshaw v Haley (1974) 409 F Supp 13ED Mich 321 Birmingham City Council ex p EOC [1989] AC 1155; [1989] 1 All ER 769, HL 994, 1001, 1004 Birse v HM Advocate (2000) (unreported) 648 Bishopsgate Investment Management Ltd v Maxwell [1992] 2 All ER 856 847 Black v Director of Public Prosecutions (1995) (unreported) 765 Blackledge and Others (Ordtech) [1996] 1 Cr App R 326, CA 249 Bladet TromsØ and Stensaas v Norway (2000) 29 EHRR 125; (1999) 6 BHRC 599 222, 362 Blake [1991] Crim LR 119 839, 876 Boddington v British Transport Police [1999] 2 AC 143; [1998] 2 WLR 639 477 Bolam v Friern HMC [1957] 2 All ER 118 735, 736 Bolger v Youngs Drug Products Ltd [1983] 103 Ct 2875 13 Bolitho v Hackney Health Authority [1998] AC 232 735 Bolton Seven Case (2001) The Guardian, 27 July 740 Bonnard v Perryman [1891] 2 Ch 269, CA 248, 358 Bonsignore v Oberstadtdirektor of the City of Cologne [1975] ECR 297 947 Bookbinder v Tebbit (No 2) [1992] 1 WLR 217 366 Borowski v AG of Canada (1987) 39 DLR (4th) 731 734 Botta v Italy (1998) 26 EHRR 241 68, 983 Bouamar v Belgium, Judgment of 29 February, A 129 (1988); [1988] 11 EHRR 1 52, 777 Bouanimba v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1986] Imm AR 343 947 Bouchereau [1977] ECR 1999 947 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 2) [1999] 1 All ER 577 962 Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrates’ Court ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 3) [1999] 2 WLR 827; [1999] 2 All ER 97, HL Bowden [2000] 2 All ER 418; (1999) The Times, 25 February Bowers v Hardwick[1986] 478 US 186 44, 960, 961 289, 845, 856, 857 739 Bowman v UK (1998) 25 EHRR 1 75 xxxii Table of Cases Boychuk v Symons Holdings Ltd [1977] IRLR 395 1053 Boyle v Rice, Judgment of 27 April 1988, A 131 71, 453 Bozanov France (1986) 9 EHRR 297 53, 55 Brailsford [1905] 2 KB 730 968 Brandenburg v Ohio (1969) 395 US 444 452 Brannigan and McBride v UK (1993) 17 EHRR 539; (1993) The Times, 28 May 36, 55, 88, 802, 803 Bray (1998) (unreported) 893 Breen v Chief Constable for Dumfries and Galloway (1997) The Times, 24 April 966 Brentwood Council ex p Peck [1998] CMLR 697 702 Brezenau and Francis [1989] Crim LR 650 832 Brickley and Kitson v Police (1988) Legal Action, July 460 Bridges v California 314 US 252 (1941) 259 Brind and McLaughlin v UK (1994) 18 EHRR CD 76 303 British Coal Corporation v Smith [1993] IRLR 308 1025 British Gas v Sharma [1991] IRLR 101 1046 British Steel Corporation v Granada Television [1981] AC 1096; [1981] 1 All ER 417, HL 578 Brixton Prison Governor ex p Soblen [1963] 2 QB 243 951, 960 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Barclay and Another (1997) 9 Admin LR 265; (1996) The Times, 11 October 556 Broadcasting Complaints Commission ex p Granada TV Ltd (1993) The Times, 31 May; affd [1995] EMLR 163; (1994) The Times, 16 December, CA 556, 567, 589, 615 Broadmore Hospital Authority and Another v R [2000] 2 All ER 727 548 Brogan, Coyle, McFadden and Tracey v UK, Judgment of 29 November 1988, A 145; (1989) 11 EHRR 117 36, 55, 88, 112, 793, 799, 800, 802, 803 Brokdorf Case (1985) 69 B VerfGE 315 423 Broome v Cassell and Co [1972] AC 1027 910 Brosch [1988] Crim LR 743, CA 789 Brown [1993] 2 WLR 556; [1993] 2 All ER 75, HL 741, 742 Brown v Rentokil Ltd [1992] IRLR 302 996 Brown vStott [2001] 2 WLR 817; [2001] 2 All ER 97, PC 144, 145, 181, 182, 188, 189, 450, 858, 899, 902, 927 Brown v TNT Express Worldwide (UK) Ltd [2001] ICR 182 Brüggemann and Scheuten v Federal Republic of Germany (1975) 10 DR 100 1028 747 Brutus v Cozens [1973] AC 854; [1972] 2 All ER 1297; [1972] 3 WLR 521; (1973) 57Cr App R 538, HL 506, 507 xxxiii Civil Liberties and Human Rights Bryan v UK (1995) 21 EHRR 342 61 Bryce [1992] 4 All ER 567; (1992) 95 Cr App R 230; (1992) 142 NLJ 1161, CA 895 Buchholz, Judgment of 6 May 1981, A 42 61 Buckley v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 101 70 Bugdaycay v Secretary of State for Home Affairs [1987] AC 514, HL 106, 937, 938, 940 Burden v Rigler [1911] 1 KB 337 435, 437 Burlingham [1995] 2 SCR 206 186, 872 Burns (1886) 16 Cox CC 333 316 Burton v UK (1996) 22 EHRR 135 71 Burton and Another v De Vere Hotels (1996) The Times, 3 October 1009 Butcher[1992] 2 NZLR 257 871 Butler [1992] 1 SCR 452 280, 737 CIN Properties Ltd v Rawlins [1995] 2 EGLR 130 454 CRE v Dutton [1989] WLR 17; [1989] 1 All ER 306, CA 1002 CRE ex p Westminster City Council [1984] IRLR 230 1003 Cable and Others v UK, Appl No 24436/94 (1999) The Times, 11 March 61 Caesar-Gordon ex p University of Liverpool (1990) 3 All ER 821 436 Caird (1970) 54 Cr App R 499, CA 518, 949 Calder (John) Publishing v Powell [1965] 1 QB 159; [1965] 1 ALL ER 159 282 Calder and Boyars [1969] 1 QB 151; [1968] 3 WLR 974; [1968] 3 All ER 644; [1968] 52 Cr App R 706, C A 282–84 Calder vRowntree Mackintosh Ltd [1993] IRLR 27 1022 Callis v Gunn [1964] 1 QB 495 874 Cambridge Health Authority ex p B [1995] WLR 898; (1995) TLR 159, CA 109, 966 Cambridgeshire County Council v R [1994] 2 FCR 973 398 Camelot Group Ltd v Centaur Communications [1998] EMLR 1; [1999] QB 124; [1998] 1 All ER 251, CA 263, 264 Camenzind v Switzerland, RJD 1997–III 2880 72 Campbell v UK (1992) 15 EHRR 137 72 Campbell and Another [1993] Crim LR 47, CA 850 Campbell and Cosans v UK, Judgment of 25 February 1982, A 48; (1982) 4 EHRR 293 45, 46, 82, 729 Campbell and Fell v UK, Judgment of 28 June 1984, A 80; (1985) 7 EHRR 165 Canale [1990] 91 Cr App R 1; [1990] All ER 187, CA Cantoni v France, para 35 (1996) RJD 1996-V 1614 (not yet published) 59, 411 879, 880 67, 442 Capon v DPP Case CO/3496/97 judgment 4 March 1998, LEXIS transcript, discussed by P Mead [1998] Crim LR 870 431, 450, 484, 486, 487, 489, 490 xxxiv Table of Cases Castells v Spain A 236; Judgment of 23 April 1992; (1992) 14 EHRR 445 76, 209, 422, 523 Castorina v Chief Constable of Surrey (1988) 138 NLJ 180, CA 785–87, 798 Caswell [1984] Crim LR 111 1064 Caunt (1947) 64 LQR 203 316 Central Criminal Court ex p Crook (1984) The Times, 8 November 242 Central Criminal Court ex p Francis and Francis [1989] AC 346; [1988] 3 All ER 375; [1988] 3 WLR 989, HL 643, 649 Central Independent Television [1994] Fam 192; [1994] 3 WLR 20, CA 547, 548, 588 Central Independent Television plc and Others, Re [1991] 1 All ER 347; [1991] 1 WLR 4 242 Cetin v Turkey (unreported) 908 Chahal v UK (1997) 23 EHRR 413; (1996) The Times, 28 November (1996) The Guardian, 16 November 47, 50, 53, 56, 716, 722–24, 953, 954, 956 Chalkley and Jeffries [1998] 2 All ER 155; [1998] 2 Cr App R 79; [1998] 3 WLR 146, CA 104, 105, 799, 869, 889, 892, 898, 926 Chandler v Director of Public Prosecutions [1964] AC 763; [1962] 3 All ER 142, HL 339 Channel 4 Television Co Ltd, In re (1988) The Times, 2 February; [1988] Crim LR 237 232 Chapman v Director of Public Prosecutions (1988) Cr App R 190; [1988] Crim LR 843 787 Chappel v UK (1989) 12 EHRR 1 71 Chappell v UK No 12587/86; (1988) 10 EHRR 510 444, 445, 447, 476 Chappell & Co Ltd v Columbia Gramophone Co [1914] 2 Ch 745 Chassagnou v France (1999) 7 BHRC 151, Judgment of 29 April 1999 563 158, 414 Cheall v Association of Professional Executive Clerical and Computer Staff [1983] 2 AC 180 398 Cheall v UK (1985) 8 EHRR 74 399 Chief Constable for Devon and Cornwall ex p CEGB [1982] QB 458 494 Chief Constable of Avon ex p Robinson [1989] All ER 15; [1989] 1 WLR 793 814 Chief Constable of Kent Constabulary ex p Kent Police Federation Joint Branch Board and Another (1999) The Times, 1 December 792, 797 Chief Constable of Lancashire ex p Parker and McGrath [1993] 2 WLR 428; [1993] 1 All ER 56; (1992) 142 NLJ 635 Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p AB [1997] 3 WLR 724, CA Chief Constable of North Wales Police ex p Thorpe [1999] QB 396 xxxv 640, 642 616 548, 579 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Chief Constable of Sussex ex p International Ferry Traders Ltd [1999] 2 AC 418; [1999] 1 All ER 129 175, 187, 449, 490 Chief Constable of Warwickshire Constabulary ex p Fitzpatrick [1999] 1 WLR 564 640 Chief Constable of West Midlands Police ex p Wiley, Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire Police ex p Sunderland [1995] 1 AC 274; [1994] 3 All ER 420; (1995) 1 Cr App R 342, HL 366, 922 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Govell (1994) LEXIS transcript 896 Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police ex p Khan (2001) The Times, 16 October; [2000] IRLR 324; [2000] ICR 1169, CA 1028, 1029 Chief Metropolitan Magistrates’ Court ex p Choudhury [1991] 1 QB 429; [1991] 1 All ER 306 114, 315–17, 322, 323 Chorherr v Austria A 266-B, para 23 (1993); (1994) 17 EHRR 358 67, 79, 220, 437, 438, 442, 443, 446, 454 Choudhary, Nadir v UK (1999) 1 EHRLR 522 681, 686 Choudhury v UK (1991) No 17349/1990; (1991) 12 HRLJ 172 315–17, 322, 323 Christian Lawyers Assoc of South Africa v The Minister of Health 1998 (11) BCLR 1434 734 Christians Against Racism and Fascism v UK (1984) 24 YBECHR 178; No 8440/78; 21 DR 138 79, 175, 439, 440, 443, 447, 458, 464, 476, 477, 479, 515 Christie v Leachinsky [1947] AC 573; [1947] 1 All ER 567, HL 789 Christie v UK (1993) No 21482/93, 78-A 78A DR E Com HR 119 33, 663, 665, 666, 680, 682, 683, 698, 708, 723 Christou [1992] QB 979; [1992] 4 All ER 559, CA 895, 897 Clarke v General Accident Fire and Life Assurance Corp plc [1998] 1WLR 1647 140 Clarke (No 2) [1964] 2 QB 315; [1963] 3 All ER 884, CA 517 Clarke v Eley IMI Kynoch Ltd [1983] ICR 703 1013 Clay Cross v Fletcher [1978] 1 WLR 1429; [1979] 1 All ER 474 1022 Clegg [1995] 2 WLR 80 43 Clerkenwell Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate ex p The Telegraph and Others [1993] 2 All ER 183; (1992) The Times, 22 October 242 Clowser v Chaplin (1981) 72 Cr App R 342 533 Clymo v Wandsworth LBC [1989] ICR 250 1014 Cochrane, Re 8 Dowl 630 1064 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41 Coffin v Smith (1980) Cr App R 221 374, 566, 569, 573, 575, 577 762 Cogan and Leake [1976] QB 217 1065 Cohen v California (1971) 403 US 15 206, 321 xxxvi Table of Cases Collin v Smith (1978) 578 F 2d 1197, 7th Cir (1978) 436 US 953; (1978) 439 US 916 Collins and Wilcock [1984] 3 All ER 374; [1984] 1 WLR 1172 322 758, 761 Colloza v Italy, Judgment of 12 February 1985, A 89; (1985) 7 EHRR 516 62 Colsey (1931) The Times, 9 May 258 Commission of EC v UK (1996) Case 222/94, 30 September; [1996] ECR-14025 Commission of European Communities v UK [1982] 3 CMLR 284 305 1018 Commission v France (Case 318/86) [1989] 3 CMLR 663; [1988] ECR 3559 1037, 1038, 1040, 1041, 1043 Condron v UK (2000) Judgment of 2 May; (2001) 31 EHRR 1 145, 872, 900 Condron and Another [1997] 1 Cr App R 185; (1997) 161 JP1; (1996) The Times, 4 November, CA 844, 845, 856, 857, 880 Conegate Ltd v Customs and Excise Commissioners [1987] QB 254; [1986] 2 All ER 688 290 Coney (1882) 8 QBD 534 741 Confait Case Report of the Inquiry by the Hon Sir Henry Fisher, HC 90 (1977–78) 754, 755, 818, 874 Constantine v Imperial Hotels [1944] KB 693 989 Continental Can Co v Minn 297 NW 2d 241 1009 Conway v Rimmer [1968] AC 910, HL 365, 367 Coolidge v New Hampshire 403 US 443 (1973) 637 Corelli v Wall (1906) 22 TLR 532 562 Cossey v UK, Judgment of 27 September 1990, A 184; (1990) 13 EHRR 622 37, 77, 80, 452, 538, 744 Costello-Roberts v UK, Judgment of 25 March 1993, A 247-C; (1993) 19 EHRR 112; (1993) The Times, 26 March 45, 730, 731 Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for Civil Service (GCHQ) [1985] AC 374; [1985] 3 WLR 1174; [1984] 3 All ER 935, HL 105, 107, 109, 411, 415, 523, 950, 969 Council of Civil Service Unions v UK (1987) No 11603/85, 50 DR 228; (1988) 10 EHRR 269 35, 398, 415 Cowan and Others [1996] QB 373; [1995] 4 All ER 939 844 Cox [1992] BMLR 38 733 Cox [1993] Crim LR 382; (1993) 96 Cr App R 464; (1992) The Times, 2 December 831, 835, 883 Coyne v UK, Judgment of 24 October 1997; RJD 1997–V 1842 CRE ex p Prestige Group plc [1984] 1 WLR 335, HL Creation Records Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd [1997] EMLR 444 Crémieux v France (1993) 16 EHRR 357 61 1050 574, 575, 589 72 Criminal Injuries Compensation Board ex p A [1992] COD 379 Cröcher and Möller v Switzerland DR 34 (1983); (1984) 6 EHRR 345 xxxvii 244 35 Civil Liberties and Human Rights Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Director of Public Prosecutions [1988] QB 532; [1988] 1 All ER 315 643 Crown Court at Snaresbrook ex p Metropolitan Police Commissioner (1984) 148 JP 449 286, 287 Cyprus v Turkey (1976) 4 EHRR 482 70 D v UK (1998) 24 EHRR 423 44, 957 Dagenais v Canadian Broadcasting Corpn (1995) 120 DLR (4th) 12 219 Daily Express Case (1981) The Times, 19 December 239, 240 Dallison v Caffrey [1965] 1 QB 348; [1964] 3 WLR 385, CA 785 Darbo v Director of Public Prosecutions [1992] Crim LR 56; (1992) The Times, 4 July 286 Darrach (2000) 191 DLR (4th) 539 181 Davis, Rowe and Johnson [1993] 1 WLR 613 369, 709 Davison [1988] Crim LR 442 876 Dawkins v Department of Environment [1993] ICR 517; [1993] IRLR 284; 1002 De Geillustreede Pers v Netherlands No 5178/71; 8 DR 5 (1976) 439 De Geouffre de la Pradelle v France (1993) HRLJ 276 84 De Haes and Gijsels v Belgium (1997) 25 EHRR 1 62 De Jong, Baljet and Van de Brink, Judgment of 22 May 1984, A 77; (1984) 8 EHRR 20 57 De Souza v Automobile Association [1986] ICR 514 1007, 1033 De Vargattirgah v France (1981) Appl 9559/81 29 De Wilde, Ooms and Versyp v Belgium (1971) A12 p 33 72 Dekkerv VJV Centrum [1991] IRLR 27 996, 998 Delaney (1989) 88 Cr App R 338; (1988) The Times, 20 August, CA 809, 878, 889 Delcourt v Belgium All (1970) 1 EHRR 355 900 Delta v France (1993) 16 EHRR 574 514 Demicoli v Malta A 210 (1991) 921 Department of Health ex p Source Informatics Ltd [2000] 2 WLR 953; (2000) The Times, 21 January, CA 536, 566, 593 Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers [1992] 3 All ER 65, CA; [1993] AC 534; [1993] 1 All ER 1011; [1992] 3 WLR 28, HL 13, 103, 107, 114, 128, 151, 203, 210, 213, 434, 448, 622 Director of GCHQ ex p Hodges (1988) COD 123; (1988) The Times, 26 July 1054 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Kebilene and Others [1999] 4 All ER 801; [1999] 3 WLR 372, HL 173, 185–87, 189, 190, 411, 447, 448, 450, 451, 524, 525, 540, 544, 545, 899 Director of Public Prosecutions ex p Treadaway (1997) The Times, 18 November 917 Director of Public Prosecutions v A and BC Chewing Gum Ltd [1968] 1 QB 159 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Barnard and Others (1999) The Times, 9 November 484 xxxviii Table of Cases Director of Public Prosecutions v Billington [1988] 1 All ER 435; (1988) Cr App R 68 Director of Public Prosecutions v Blake [1989] 1 WLR 432, CA 883 758, 822, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Capon: see Capon v DPP— Director of Public Prosecutions v Channel Four Television Co Ltd and Another [1993] 2 All ER 517; (1992) The Times, 14 September 265 Director of Public Prosecutions v Clarke [1992] Crim LR 60 507, 508, 511, 512 Director of Public Prosecutions v Fidler [1992] 1 WLR 91 506, 507 Director of Public Prosecutions v Hawkins [1988] 1 WLR 1166; [1988] 3 All ER 673 789 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jones and Lloyd [1997] 2 All ER 119, DC; [1999] 2 WLR 625; [1999] 2 All ER 257; [1999] AC 240, HL 104, 105, 435, 448, 453, 454, 465, 467, 470, 472, 474–77, 480, 481 Director of Public Prosecutions v Jordan [1977] AC 699, HL 285, 286 Director of Public Prosecutions v Morgan [1976] AC 182 596 Director of Public Prosecutions v Moseley, Woodling and Selvanayagam, Judgment of 9 June 1999; the Times 23 June 1999; [1999] J Civ Lib 390 104, 105, 514–16 Director of Public Prosecutions v Orum [1988] 3 All ER 449 506 Director of Public Prosecutions v Rouse; Same v Davis (1992) Cr App R 185 758, 883 Director of Public Prosecutions v Whyte [1972] AC 849; [1972] 3 All ER 12, HL 283, 284 Director of Public Prosecutions v Wilson [1991] Crim LR 441 785, 891 Director of the Serious Fraud Office ex p Smith [1993] AC 1; [1992] 3 WLR 66 847 Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club ex p Aga Khan [1993] 1 WLR 909 158, 159 Djeroud v France (1991) A 191–B 747, 957 Doe v Bolton (1973) 410 US 179; [1973] 35 L E 2d 201 732 Doncaster and Retford Co-operative Societies Agreement, Re [1960] LR 2 PC 237 Donelly v Jackman (1970) Cr App R 229; [1970] 1 WLR 562 761 Donnelly v UK (1973) Appl 5577–82/72; (1973) YB XVI 26 Donovan [1934] 2 KB 498 741 Doorson v Netherlands (1996) 22 EHRR 330 245, 370, 514 Dornanv Belfast County Council [1990] IRLR 179 995, 1003 Douglas (Michael, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Northern and Shell plc) v Hello!

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