Mark I Halpern's Computer science and technology and their application PDF

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As a product structure is a network of relationships among parts, a data-bank structure is a network of relationships among entity sets. As product control requires B/M and W/U files, data-bank control requires similar information about data relationships. This is the key idea in Raver's "File Organization in Management Information and Control Systems" [7]. Using a "threading matrix" to represent the relations among entity sets, he has defined algorithms for finding all the related data maps in a given data bank.

There are other techniques such as bidirectional list structures and unidirectional or bidirectional ring structures. A chained list organization based on ring structures is recommended in the report of the COBOL Data Base Task Group [9]. The following description of ring structures is quoted from that report: "In a ring structure, lists are circular in that the tail of any list leads back to its head rather than containing an indicator to show that it is the last record in the list. "This proves to be very powerful as it provides a facility, where A Tutorial on Data-Base Organization 37 Departments ' Employees : Jobs : Variable pointer list organization FIG.

Of course, this duplication of data will require at least twice as much storage and complicate the update problem. Very few systems maintain data in both a regular organization and an inverted organization. The usual compromise is to have inverted data maps only for selected attributes. Such maps are often called "secondary indexes". We will return to the subject of secondary indexes after we examine data organizations that include structural data maps. 3. 1. COMPLEX AND STRUCTURAL DATA MAPS Data banks must be designed to facilitate both retrieval and update.

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