By Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (U.S.)
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Extra info for Conserving energy and heating your swimming pool with solar energy
Convective heat transfer coeﬃcients vary greatly for laminar and turbulent ﬂows. For better understanding, some details on forced convection are instructive. Forced convection provides much higher rates of heat transfer than natural convection, and is highly sensitive to heat transfer coeﬃcient values. For a laminar boundary layer, ﬂuid motion is highly ordered and smooth, while ﬂuid motion is irregular and ﬂuctuating in a turbulent boundary layer. Fluctuations enhance the heat transfer, but also increase surface friction.
The Bernoulli equation for incompressible ﬂow is sometimes referred to as a mechanical-energy equation because of the similarity between it and the steady-ﬂow energy equation derived from the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics for an inviscid ﬂuid with no heat transfer or external work. Note that for inviscid ﬂuids the viscous forces and surface tension forces are not accounted for, so it is only valid when viscous eﬀects are negligibly small. 50) where u2 ∕2g represents the kinetic energy per unit mass (or the velocity head), p∕????g denotes the pressure energy per unit mass (or the pressure head), z denotes the potential energy per unit mass (or the potential head or constant total head), H denotes the total energy per unit mass (or the total head), and subscripts 1 and 2 denote points along the streamline.
Reﬁning, production of industrial gases). Exergy analysis is particularly useful for determining meaningful eﬃciencies and thermodynamic losses. Speciﬁcally, exergy analysis provides eﬃciencies that are true measures of how nearly eﬃciency approaches the ideal or upper limit, and pinpoints the locations, types, and magnitudes of losses (ineﬃciencies). Thus, exergy analysis enhances understanding of these quantities and greatly assists eﬀorts to improve the eﬃciency with which we use energy resources.