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Convective heat transfer coefficients vary greatly for laminar and turbulent flows. For better understanding, some details on forced convection are instructive. Forced convection provides much higher rates of heat transfer than natural convection, and is highly sensitive to heat transfer coefficient values. For a laminar boundary layer, fluid motion is highly ordered and smooth, while fluid motion is irregular and fluctuating in a turbulent boundary layer. Fluctuations enhance the heat transfer, but also increase surface friction.

The Bernoulli equation for incompressible flow is sometimes referred to as a mechanical-energy equation because of the similarity between it and the steady-flow energy equation derived from the first law of thermodynamics for an inviscid fluid with no heat transfer or external work. Note that for inviscid fluids the viscous forces and surface tension forces are not accounted for, so it is only valid when viscous effects are negligibly small. 50) where u2 ∕2g represents the kinetic energy per unit mass (or the velocity head), p∕????g denotes the pressure energy per unit mass (or the pressure head), z denotes the potential energy per unit mass (or the potential head or constant total head), H denotes the total energy per unit mass (or the total head), and subscripts 1 and 2 denote points along the streamline.

Refining, production of industrial gases). Exergy analysis is particularly useful for determining meaningful efficiencies and thermodynamic losses. Specifically, exergy analysis provides efficiencies that are true measures of how nearly efficiency approaches the ideal or upper limit, and pinpoints the locations, types, and magnitudes of losses (inefficiencies). Thus, exergy analysis enhances understanding of these quantities and greatly assists efforts to improve the efficiency with which we use energy resources.

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