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9 % in Romania in 1997. 1 %. In Slovakia, the proportion of volatile substance users among all treated clients was 10 to 11 % between 1994 and 1998, while sedative use accounted for 6 % of all demands for treatment in 1998. A national survey of 15-year-olds conducted in 1995 in Slovenia found a significant percentage of glue and other substance abuse, as well as of tranquillisers, particularly among girls. Overall, drug consumption in the CEECs continues to rise. Responses Over the last five years, most CEECs have attempted to counter the drug problem through institutional and legislative measures, demand-reduction activities (primarily prevention and treatment) and law enforcement.
Although a smaller proportion of convicted drug offenders are female, data from Ireland and the UK reveal significant levels of problem drug use among women on entry to prison, mainly involving heroin, methadone and benzodiazepines. Treatment facilities in women’s prisons vary and guidelines for treating benzodiazepine dependence to prevent the dangers of sudden withdrawal do not appear to be as well developed as guidelines for treating opiate dependence. Mortality directly related to illicit drug use appears to be lower among women than men, even allowing for gender differences in prevalence (on average, women account for only 20 % of drug-related deaths).
On conviction, they might receive a custodial sentence determined by the quantity of the property stolen and whether any violence — a major aggravating factor — was used. In Ireland, for example, possession of a syringe with intention to cause or threaten to cause injury or intimidation can lead to between 12 months and life imprisonment. Minor theft — such as shoplifting — or ‘petty’ theft — as defined by national law — incur milder sentences on condition that the defendant undergoes treatment for the addiction.