By Kiyotaka Toshimori
Mammalian spermatozoa have advanced constructions. The structure-function courting of sperm has been studied from numerous viewpoints. accrued proof has proven that the sperm parts suffer sequential alterations from the start of spermatogenesis to the time of fertilization/embryogenesis. Structural analyses were played utilizing a number of new recommendations of sunshine and electron microscopy in addition to immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry together with particular probes similar to antibodies opposed to sperm elements. lately built gene-manipulation options have speeded up investigations at the occasions that govern the connection among the constitution and molecular parts of sperm. furthermore, animal types with gene manipulations were proven to express a number of morphological and sensible abnormalities that result in infertility.
In this ebook, I speak about the occasions that take place within the basic sperm head and govern the structure-function courting from the time of spermatogenesis to that of fertilization or egg activation. during this regard, I describe dynamic variations and maturation occasions happening in sperm-head parts and examine the results of those occasions with the results in their failure.
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Additional info for Dynamics of the Mammalian Sperm Head: Modifications and Maturation Events From Spermatogenesis to Egg Activation
Individuals homozygous for this mutation produce sperm with 100% aberrantly shaped heads but without any other prominent somatic changes (Cole et al. 1988; Hugenholtz and Bruce 1983). The sperm-tail architectures of azh/azh mutant mice are similar to those of the wild-type mice, but the head architectures differ markedly in terms of the point of attachment. The wild-type sperm nuclei are usually flat, whereas the mutant nuclei exhibit tapered cylindrical structures toward the posterior region. The manchette, a microtubular structure, differs between the wild-type and mutant sperm in terms of its size and configuration.
An affinitypurified antibasigin antibody, if used to test the effects of basigin on sperm–egg interaction, is found to suppress sperm–zona binding. During sperm–egg interaction, basigin is expressed on the head and proximal region of the tail of capacitated spermatozoa. After the acrosome reaction, basigin undergoes deglycosylation with a reduction in its molecular size from 25 to 20 kDa, and its expression tends to disappear from the tail region (Fig. 1). Thus deglycosylation is likely to be involved in this event, which is related to sperm–egg interaction.
I myself have developed several antiacrosomal antibodies, such as: the monoclonal antibody MN7 that recognizes the MN7 antigen on the anterior region of the acrosome (Oh-Oka et al. 2001; Tanii et al. 1994); MC101 that recognizes an antigenic molecule on the acrosomal cortex (Toshimori et al. 1995); and MN9 that recognizes the antigenic molecule Equatorin, which is localized throughout the acrosome and predominantly on the ES after the acrosome reaction (Manandhar and Toshimori 2001; Toshimori et al.