By Joe M. Richardson, Maxine D. Jones
Even after the optimism of Reconstruction used to be shattered through violence, fraud, and intimidation and the white South relegated African americans to segregated and disfranchised second-class citizenship, the AMA by no means deserted its declare that blacks have been equivalent in God’s sight, that any “backwardness” was once the results of situation instead of inherent inferiority, and that blacks may well and may develop into equivalent voters with different americans. The association went farther in attractiveness of black skill, humanity, and aspirations than a lot of nineteenth and twentieth century white the US via publicly and always opposing lynching, segregation, disfranchisement, and discrimination.
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Additional resources for Education for Liberation: The American Missionary Association and African Americans, 1890 to the Civil Rights Movement
They ain’t been a single time . . ” They were “mighty fussy teachers,” said one mother. ” Another whose son and daughter were paddled stated, “they is quick to get malicetry in them. ” Most parents approved spanking, but they were hurt and angry when teachers called them poor and backward and shunned community activities. The AMA generally selected understanding and sensitive personnel, but critical parents were correct about some of the teachers. Four of six Cotton Valley teachers in 1946 had bachelor degrees and one had a master’s in social work, and they often knew little of extreme poverty and rural life.
8 Gloucester Agricultural and Industrial School (most often referred to as Gloucester Normal School in AMA literature) in Cappahosic, Virginia, and Fessenden Academy in Martin, Florida, under the leadership of black principals William G. Price and John L. Wiley, both to be discussed later, produced hundreds of community leaders, teachers, and college students. Dorchester Academy in poor, sparsely populated Liberty County, Georgia, graduated its initial class in 1896, reputedly the first class of any race to graduate from high school in the county.
Hubbard, principal of the Slater Training School in Knoxville, Tennessee, said it was not true with her students. She found “a certain independence of thought and action” which feared control as tending toward slavery. 19 Whatever their age or color, the early teachers were overworked, poorly paid, and often ostracized by whites. They taught the children, visited parents, recruited students, organized and directed Sunday schools, planted gardens, trimmed or swept the yard, cut firewood, maintained the school building, and in boarding schools, supervised dormitories.