By Saad Eddin Ibrahim
Those essays by way of one in all Egypt's so much influential intellectuals supply a desirable standpoint at the political, spiritual, financial, and social problems with modern Egypt. Written over a interval of fifteen years, the essays hide various subject matters together with civil society and the customers for democratization in Egypt and the area, the city sociology of Cairo, the improvement of Egypt's landed bourgeoisie, structural adjustment and the approaches of monetary liberalization, and the complexities of ethnic conflicts and minorities within the Arab global. a few essays deal with assorted facets of Islamic activism in Egypt: the formation, club, and actions of activist teams and their philosophies, political and social roles, and ideological family members with the West. Written at a variety of issues within the smooth historical past of Islamic activism, democratic reform, and monetary and social liberalization, those essays replicate the methods of swap and continuity within the sociopolitical improvement of present-day Egypt, whereas a brand new postscript written through the writer in 2001 brings the tale into viewpoint firstly of the twenty-first century.
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Extra resources for Egypt, Islam, and Democracy: Critical Essays, With a New Postscript
Princeton University Press, 1963). A native Arab, Western-educated scholar Hisham Sharabi echoes the same thesis about the decline of Islam. In 1966 he wrote, "In the contemporary Arab world, Islam has simply been by-passed .... " Sharabi then lists the factors that contributed to the decline of Islam. See his article "Islam and Modernization in the Arab World," in J . H. Thompson and R. D. , Modernization of The Arab World (New York: Van Nostrand, 1966), pp. 26-27. For a critical discussion of the limitation of the Orientalist approach see Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Pantheon, 1978).
From Arabic, (Beirut: Kayat College Book Cooperative, 1956); Richard Mitchell, The Society of the Moslem Brothers (London: Oxford University Press, 1969). 20. These were later revealed to u s by members of the two groups themselves. The honesty tests were designed to see if we were consistent and reliable. Different militants would ask u s at various times the same questions about ourselves or other matters and then compare our answers. 2 1. The 'security checks,' a s the militants later told us, put members of the research team under surveillance for several weeks.
Three were self-employed (a pharmacist, a doctor, and a n accountant), and one worked as a conductor for a bus company. Among those who were students at the time of their arrest (eighteen members, or 53 percent), six majored in engineering, four in medicine, three in agricultural science, two in pharmacy, two in technical military science, and one in literature. It is worth noting here that four of the above majors require very high grades in Egypt's statewide examination of thanawiya 'amma: Structure of the Militant Groups 19 medicine, engineering, technical military science, and pharmacy.