By Harry B. Gray
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Moore, "Atomic Energy Levels," NBS Czrcular 467, 1949, 1952, and 1958, except a s indicated. b ~ Moeller, . The Chemzstry of the Lanthanzdes, Reinhold, New York, 1963, p. 37. 'N. I. Ionov and M. A. Mitsev, Zhur. Eksptl. z Theoret. , 40, 741 (1961). d ~ Blaise . and R . Vetter, Compt. , 256, 630 (1963). e ~ F .. Zmbov, Bull. Borzs Kzdrzch Inst. Nucl. , 13, 17 (1962). ' R . H . U . M . Dawton and K. L. Wilklnson, Atomzc Energy Research Estab. (Gt. ), GR/R, 1906 (1956). g M . F r e d and F . S. T o m p ~ i n s ,J.
M . Branscomb, Phys. , 125, 1602 (1962). Electrons in Atoms 35 Unfortunately, as a result of certain experimental difficulties, very few EA values are precisely known. A representative list is given in Table 1-6. The halogen atoms have relatively large EA's, since the resulting halide ions have a stable filled-shell electronic configuration. Atoms with filled subshells often have negative EA values. Good examples are Be, Mg, and Zn. I t is interesting to note that the atoms in the nitrogen family, with the electronic configuration J ~ ~ ~ ( have ~ S )very , small EA's.
One of the early successful pictures of a chemical bond involving electrons and nuclei resulted from the work of the American physical chemist, G. N. Lewis. Lewis formulated the electron-pair bond, in which the combining atoms tend to associate themselves with just enough electrons to achieve an inert-gas electronic configuration. The hydrogen molecule is, in the Lewis theory, held together by an electron-pair bond (Fig. 2-3). Each hydrogen has the same partial claim to the electron pair and thus achieves the stable ls2 helium configuration.