Download e-book for kindle: Emotions, stress, and health by Alex J. Zautra

By Alex J. Zautra

During this quantity, Zautra illustrates how adventure with tricky or annoying emotional events can, opposite to renowned trust, be important; for instance, our skill to conform to emphasize will be stronger through experiencing tricky moments of emotional depth. Zautra masterfully integrates learn and idea on emotion and rigidity, opting for a different and significant position for annoying lifestyles occasions. He bargains new insights into how pressure and feelings can effect healthiness and disease and demonstrates the huge applicability of this angle throughout domain names of affection and marriage, paintings, getting older, and neighborhood. by way of reviewing study on power ache, melancholy, baby abuse, and dependancy, Zautra additionally offers new insights into medical difficulties.

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The top-down approach emphasizes higher-order cognitive pro­ cesses in the experience of emotions. Dating back to experiments by Schachter and Singer (1962), this approach posits that emotion is a con­ sequence of cognitive labels that we place on aroused states. The bottomup model, illustrated by the work of Robert Zajonc (1980), focuses on ways that affect, not cognition, is primary. It is this model, with its strengths in the neuroscience of affect and motivation that I elaborate on next. The Neurology of Positive and Negative Activation Systems Activated states of positive and negative emotions appear to have separate neurobiological functions and perhaps even distinct anatomical structures.

We have evolved a set of systems full of repeats, confounds, dis­ junctions, and conjunctions. It appears a bit messy on the surface, but it works splendidly out on the open road. One of the implications of an evolutionary approach is that we have evolved not just one emotion system. My son shouts with glee but stands back from that wave, not because he is ambivalent. He displays no dis­ comfort at feeling two emotions at the same time. That is because he, like all of us, has evolved more than one system of emotional response in order to handle a complex world adaptively.

How often is it that we do not know how to describe our feelings? I suspect at least some of those times we are searching unsuccessfully to find the single best emotion with which to understand ourselves. But we are often “of two minds” about things, and what we lose in simplicity we can gain in clarity. Our language does not always help us think about emotions in all their complexity. The classic model of emotion dimensions was based on judg­ ments of words that describe feeling states. Through analyses of ratings of degrees of difference between affect-laden words, Charles Osgood and his colleagues (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957) identified three primary dimensions of judgment: evaluation, activity, and potency.

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