By Christophe Bertossi (eds.)
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Extra info for European Anti-Discrimination and the Politics of Citizenship: Britain and France
These cases also show the limitations of US hegemony: in 2004, the United States had to drop its claims to exemption to the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, after revelations on the treatment of prisoners in Iraq. In the case of the Guantanamo Bay detainees, some British citizens were released, although those from states lower in the international hierarchy were unable to gain such privileges. The same applies to rules on international trade. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is designed to free up world trade by creating a system of fair and universal rules.
There was no notion of cultural community between rulers and subjects in this model: it was held together by power and the divine right of kings. Warfare did not require mass mobilization, but was largely a matter for gentlemen commanding armies of regular soldiers and mercenaries. Following the American and French Revolutions of the late eighteenth century, a new democratic-nationalist order emerged. The idea of popular sovereignty made it necessary to define who belonged to the people, through the institution of citizenship.
Resistance movements may appear particularistic and backward looking, because discourses of universalism have been monopolized by globalizing forces. These discourses legitimate such measures as restrictive immigration rules, deportation of 'unwanted' migrants, or military attacks on 'rogue states'. Some Northern intellectuals now argue that democracy was just a passing phase in world history, and not suitable for certain cultures (Kaplan, 1996b). Others, however, see democracy as something that can and should be imposed by force, especially where political and economic interests demand it.