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By Jean-Louis Boulanger

Even if formal research programming strategies might be fairly outdated, the advent of formal equipment basically dates from the Nineteen Eighties. those options allow us to research the habit of a software program program, defined in a programming language. It took till the top of the Nineties ahead of formal equipment or the B process might be applied in business purposes or be usable in an commercial atmosphere. present literature basically provides scholars and researchers very normal overviews of formal equipment. the aim of this ebook is to offer suggestions from event at the use of “formal tools” (such as facts and model-checking) in commercial examples in the transportation area.

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The languages introduced by the CEI/IEC 61131-3 [IEC 03] standard are used more and more for making software applications, as these graphic languages are easily assimilated and standardized. There are thus some tools which cover all the formalisms described in the CEI/IEC 61131-3 [IEC 03] standard. One of the important points regarding these tools is that they are supplied for making programmable controller applications and may thus come with a certificate for a safety level, which might be SSIL2 or SSIL3.

The EN 50155 [AFN 01] standard is normally applicable for all the embedded applications in a train. However, the EN 50155 standard calls directly the CENELEC EN 50128 standard. 3. Taking into account techniques and formal methods It is interesting to note that the definitions of the B and C annexes (Part 7 of the CEI/IEC 61508 standard) use some articles and/or books, which are dated between 1970 and 1998, as references. It seems necessary to bring this annex up to date. 1. 1. 3) standard, a semi-formal method offers a means of developing a description of a system at a stage of development (specification, architecture, and/or design).

IEC 05] IEC 61511, Sécurité fonctionnelle – Système instrumenté de sécurité pour le secteur des industries de transformation, Norme européenne, March 2005. [IEC 06] IEC 60880, Centrales nucléaires de puissance – instrumentation et contrôles commande importants pour la sécurité, Aspects logiciels des systèmes programmés réalisant des fonctions de catégories A. Norme internationale, 2006. [IEC 98] IEC 61508, Sécurité fonctionnelle des systèmes électriques électroniques programmables relatifs à la sécurité.

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