By James D. Savage
Because the Nineteen Fifties, the government has depended on the peer evaluation process for investment educational technological know-how. Peer assessment, despite the fact that, is lower than assault for being a biased procedure that is helping wealthy learn universities get richer. As a therapy for those biases, collage presidents and individuals of Congress have grew to become to the earmarking of technology initiatives and amenities within the federal funds. investment technology in the US explores either the professionals and the cons of the tutorial earmarking factor and explains why this factor has triggered a rift in the nation's technology neighborhood.
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Additional resources for Funding Science in America: Congress, Universities, and the Politics of the Academic Pork Barrel
2 million operating deficit, and Stanford University and the University of Chicago also imposed budget cuts. During the period 1993-6, Stanford cut spending in its academic departments by $15 million. A very gloomy overall assessment of the financial health of higher education was reached by Wall Street's Standard & Poor's municipal finance department in 1992: "Private colleges and universities today are facing pressures unprecedented in their complexity and scope. "14 Trends in federal research funding have also added to higher education's financial worries.
It would obviously be improper and ineffective to give funds to private institutions without some assurance of their ability to further the purpose of the program. 32 This debate over the funding mechanism continued on during the next several years, though the focus of contention over the Kilgore and Bush plans touched on more volatile matters, such as whether patent rights on grants would be retained by the federal government. President Harry S Truman supported Kilgore's bill and vetoed legislation advocating Bush's plan in 1947, largely because Truman objected to Bush's proposal that the agency chief be only indirectly appointed by the president through the NRF governing board.
Penick, Pursell, Sherwood, and Swain, op. , p. 19. 36 The Incentives to Earmark in favor of the Bush plan on this point was the director of the Bureau of the Budget, Harold Smith, who proclaimed: Only by specific contacts, rather than general purpose contracts, can [the science agency] make sure that it is supporting in each institution only the type of research which that institution is qualified to perform. . It would obviously be improper and ineffective to give funds to private institutions without some assurance of their ability to further the purpose of the program.