By Karen Hagemann, Jane Rendall, Gisela Mettele
Within the interval among 1775 and 1830 the transatlantic international skilled roughly consistent battle, touching not just each eu nation but additionally North and South the USA and the Caribbean Islands. The Wars of Revolution and Liberation, encouraged through progressive or nationwide ideologies, have been more and more fought by way of conscripted troops and militias along expert armies. The behavior of struggle used to be reworked, as mass armies have been deployed through either innovative and conservative regimes, deeply affecting the political, social and gender order of the societies concerned. not just infantrymen but additionally civilians—men and ladies alike—had to be mobilized on an extraordinary scale. This quantity addresses the connection among those wars, constructing political and nationwide identities and the altering gender regimes of Europe and the Americas. taking a look at either loose and slave societies, it explores army and civilian reviews of conflict and revolution, which formed in addition to mirrored gender thoughts and practices, in terms of category, ethnicity, race and faith.
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Extra info for Gender, War and Politics: Transatlantic Perspectives, 1775-1830
Patriotism, citizenship and nation-building The word ‘patriotism’ frequently recurs throughout this volume in relation to men and women, civilians as well as soldiers. 95 Patriotism could be expressed in relation to republics or monarchies, nations or multinational empires, with reference to a region or even a locality. Patriotic ideas influenced military as well as civilian discourses and practices. The terms ‘citizen’ and ‘citizenship’ have also been widely used in this book. They are often employed to indicate the formal relationship of individuals to the state, based on voting rights and rights of representation.
The denial of this by planters in the French colonies brought uprisings by the free coloured population in 1790 and by slaves in 1791. The grant of emancipation in 1793 by the abolitionist French Commissioner in Saint-Domingue preceded the French National Convention’s grant of emancipation to slaves in 1794. The hopes this generated for slaves and free coloured populations across the Caribbean were encouraged by the French, who sought to spread rebellion to the British, Spanish and Dutch islands.
Celebrations also drew upon a vision of the nation as a family. In Prussia, during the wars of 1813-15, the monarchy introduced a wide range of patriotic events and festivities that involved the public as a whole in clearly gendered ways; from the paternal monarch downwards, every subject was integrated according to their class, gender and age. 110 Through such cultural politics even conservative monarchies such as Prussia tried to exploit patriotic feelings to strengthen identification with the state and foster willingness to fight and sacrifice for the nation.