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By Aiden Warren, Ingvild Bode (auth.)

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Where these positions sit in the context of the three general approaches to treaty interpretation set out in Articles 31 and 32 of the Self-Defense in International Law 29 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) will be discussed in the following. ”31 This can be defined as the objective approach32 and emphasizes the interpretation of the semantics of the treaty text. 33 That is, an attack must actually be in progress before the targeted state can respond with what can be termed as an assertive form of self-defense.

Where these positions sit in the context of the three general approaches to treaty interpretation set out in Articles 31 and 32 of the Self-Defense in International Law 29 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) will be discussed in the following. ”31 This can be defined as the objective approach32 and emphasizes the interpretation of the semantics of the treaty text. 33 That is, an attack must actually be in progress before the targeted state can respond with what can be termed as an assertive form of self-defense.

22 Preemptive action was a measure of last resort, to be utilized only when all other options had been exhausted. ’”24 For Emmerich de Vattel, the greater the probability and destructiveness of an approaching attack, the better the justification for taking preemptive actions. ”25 If the threat in question be “endurable, if the loss be of small account, prompt action need not be taken,” then there is no great risk in delaying actions of self-protection until the state is “certain that there is actual danger of the evil.

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