Download PDF by Frank J. Delear: Helicopters and Airplanes of The U.S. Army

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Extra resources for Helicopters and Airplanes of The U.S. Army

Example text

The integral-scale turbulence frequency is the inverse of the turbulence integral time scale. The turbulence time and length scales are defined in Chapter 2. Similar remarks apply for CFD models that ignore sub-grid-scale mixing. The problem of closing the chemical source term is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. 6. Four micromixing models that have appeared in the literature. From top to bottom: maximum-mixedness model; minimum-mixedness model; coalescence-redispersion model; three-environment model.

Some authors refer to fU1 (V1 ; x, t) as the one-point, one-time velocity PDF. Here we use ‘point’ to refer to a space-time point in the four-dimensional space (x, t). Because x and t are fixed, experimentally this definition implies that U1 (x, t) is the first velocity component measured at a fixed location in the flow at a fixed time instant from the start of the experiment. 2) ∩ {V3 ≤ U3 (x, t) < V3 + dV3 }]. In homogeneous turbulence, the one-point joint velocity PDF can be written as f U (V; t), and can be readily measured using hot-wire anemometry or laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV).

10, these shortcomings can be overcome by combining multi-environment micromixing models with CFD models for stirred-tank reactors. A more detailed, but similar, approach based on transported PDF methods is discussed in Chapter 6. Both multi-environment CFD models and transported PDF methods essentially combine the advantages of both zone models and micromixing models to provide a more complete description of turbulent reacting flows. An essential ingredient in all approaches for modeling micromixing is the choice of the micromixing time, which we discuss next.

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