Helium Cryogenics by Steven W. Van Sciver (auth.) PDF

By Steven W. Van Sciver (auth.)

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At still higher temperatures, liquid helium has a heat capacity character similar to other simple liquids, being a gradually increasing function of temperature up to the boiling point. 2. CONDUCfiVITIE'S-ELECfRICAL AND THERMAL The electrical and thermal conductivities are nonequilibrium transport properties that determine, among other things, the rate at which a distur- 25 Low-Temperature Materials Properties bance approaches equilibrium. In the steady state, the electrical conductivity of a metal controls the resistance to flow of electricity while the thermal conductivity controls the heat transport.

Experimental evidence indicates that the W-F law works effectively only at temperatures near room temperature and at very low temperatures ( T ~ 8 0 ). 11 This fact has to do with the asymmetry imposed on the Fermi surface subjected to a thermal gradient rather than a transport current. At intermediate temperatures, the experimentally defined Lorenz ratio (L0 = kfuT) is always less than the value predicted by the W-F law combined with the free-electron model. The amount of deviation is strongly dependent on the purity of the sample, with the less pure having a smaller deviation.

The ultimate stress a,. represents that level of stress necessary to fail a particular material under tensile load. In ductile materials, the ultimate stress is considerably greater than aY and can be associated with substantial deformation. On the other band, brittle materials have aY =::: a,.. Composite structural materials such as fiberglass epoxy have even more complex behavior. 6. (O K) 547 345 90 752 506 Inconel X-750 GlO-CR 940 758 Teflon 130 • See Refs. 17 and 18. 7. (300 K) 1660 497 418 945 914 1620 758 194 1509 422 360 807 804 1496 703 86 659 312 222 620 656 1222 414 21 " See Refs.

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