Download PDF by Louis Finkelstein: Jewish self-government in the middle ages

By Louis Finkelstein

A complete background of the constitutional actions of the ecu Jewish groups throughout the center a while. quite a few texts, in Hebrew with English translations, describe the enactments of the various synods.

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Page 8 Mill's lists of harms and benefits feature the high-faluting, interesting, speculative ones. He omits the obvious. The insult of paternalism. If I paternalise over you, and in particular if I prevent you from being exposed to some seductive heresy, my action is manifestly premised on doubt of your competence, and on confidence in my own. You are likely to take offence both at my low opinion of you and at my pretension of superiority. No less so, if you acknowledge that I am indeed more competent than you are to govern your life.

Each faction would have protection from its treaty partners, and if it had chosen its partners well, that would give it the protection it needs. Each faction would extend toleration so far as its treaties require, and no farther. Two factions would enter into a treaty only when both thought it advantageous, given the strategic balance between them, their estimate of the fortunes of war, and their estimate of the potential for good or harm of the opinions that would be protected. The weak, who can offer no reciprocal toleration worth seeking, and the fanatically intolerant, who will not offer reciprocal toleration, would of course be left out of the network of treaties.

But not from factual premises that are part of the very dispute between the suppressors and the suppressed. It is Mill's ambition to defend toleration even when questions remain disputed, therefore it will not do to require some settlement of the dispute before the case for toleration can be completed. The neutralism of Mill's practice goes further. Some utilitarian might say to the believers that according to their opinion toleration maximises utility because God is offended more by the cruelty of inquisitors than by the impudence of atheists; and might argue to the atheists that according to their opinion toleration maximises utility because there is no God to be offended.

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