By Duncan Pritchard (auth.)
Duncan Pritchard bargains scholars not just a brand new exploration of themes valuable to present epistemological debate, but additionally a brand new method of doing epistemology. This complicated textbook covers such key issues as advantage epistemology, anti-luck epistemology, epistemological disjunctivism and attributer contextualism.
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On the other hand, if we opt for the weak reading of the safety principle − such that we only treat nearly all near-by possible worlds where one forms a belief in the target proposition on the same basis as in the actual world as relevant − then we can deal with cases like the Ernie case, but at the expense of now being unable to respond to the lottery problem. We noted above that the strong reading of the safety principle is probably more defensible on this score than it might at ﬁ rst appear.
More generally, the closer the near-by possible world in which the target event obtains, the luckier the event will be. As we will see, these two elements of the account of luck are very important once we spell out their epistemological ramiﬁcations. First, though, what sort of anti-luck epistemology does this account of luck suggest? Well, it seems to favour those antiluck accounts which incorporate the safety principle. Recall that we want to capture the sense in which when one has knowledge one has a true belief that is not true as a matter of luck.
Since these are propositions which are true in all near-by possible worlds, they are not easily accommodated by the safety principle as it presently stands. Consider the following case: Mathema Mathema uses a calculator to ﬁ nd out the product of 12 × 13. As a result, he forms a true belief that 12 × 13 = 156. Unbeknownst to Mathema, however, his calculator is in fact broken and is simply generating answers at random. It is pure chance, then, that Mathema has formed a true belief in this proposition.