By Bernard Feldman, Carolyn Sink
This consultant to normally played laboratory approaches is key for any veterinary practitioner or nurse learning to, or really acting regimen urinalysis and hematology laboratory techniques. It contains the fundamental details of the way to assemble, protect, arrange, and view specimens. It offers particularly with universal findings in urinalysis and hematology and offers a entire set of top quality photos for on-the-spot reference. The booklet comprises step by step strategies for either handbook and automatic checking out of all blood parts and targeted guidance for microscopic research of urine sediment together with crystals and casts.
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Extra info for Laboratory Urinalysis and Hematology for the Small Animal Practitioner (Book+CD)
The monohydrate calcium oxalate crystal is described as the “picket fence” form. These crystals are common in ethylene glycol toxicity. The dihydrate form is octahedral or “envelope” shaped. Hippuric Acid Crystals Hippuric acid crystals are found in acid, neutral, or slightly alkaline urine. These colorless crystals are prisms, plates, or needle-like in shape. These crystals are often conglomerated into masses. Figure 2-13 Calcium oxalate crystals in dog urine sediment (40 X). FIN 7/9/07 9:38 AM Page 36 Calcium Carbonate Crystals Calcium carbonate crystals are found in alkaline urine.
Fatty Casts Fatty casts (or lipid casts) are a type of coarsely granular cast containing fat droplets (Figure 2-10). These droplets are highly refractile and accumulate in casts as a result of cell lipid degeneration. These casts occur in degenerative tubular disease. Epithelial Cell Casts Epithelial cell casts are hyaline casts that contain many renal epithelial cells. They are formed as a result of desquamation of tubular cells that have not disintegrated. FIN 7/9/07 9:38 AM Page 30 This occurs in any disease producing damage to the tubular epithelium.
They appear in rhombic plates, or are needles, plates, or granules (Figure 2-17). The following crystals are difficult to find without phase microscopy. FIN 7/9/07 9:38 AM Page 37 Figure 2-15 Triple phosphate crystals in dog urine sediment (40X). Figure 2-16 Ammonium urate crystals in dog urine sediment (40X). Figure 2-17 Bilirubin crystals in dog urine sediment (40X). FIN 7/9/07 9:38 AM Page 38 Leucine Crystals Leucine crystals are founding acidic urine. These crystals are yellow or brown and are highly refractive.