By Rudolf Kingslake
Completely revised and improved to mirror the tremendous alterations within the box considering the fact that its book in 1978 powerful emphasis on how one can successfully use software program layout programs, crucial to modern lens dressmaker Many new lens layout difficulties and examples - starting from easy lenses to complicated zoom lenses and replicate structures - provide perception for either the newcomer and expert within the box Rudolf Kingslake is considered the yankee father of lens layout; his publication, now not revised considering the fact that its ebook in 1978, is seen as a vintage within the box. certainly, the world has built significantly because the ebook was once released, the obvious adjustments being the provision of strong lens layout software program programs, theoretical advances, and new floor fabrication applied sciences. This booklet presents the abilities and information to maneuver into the fascinating global of up to date lens layout and boost useful lenses wanted for the nice number of 21st-century purposes. carrying on with to target basic tools and systems of lens layout, this revision via R. Barry Johnson of a vintage modernizes symbology and nomenclature, improves conceptual readability, broadens the examine of aberrations, complements dialogue of multi-mirror structures, provides tilted and decentered structures with eccentric scholars, explores use of aberrations within the optimization approach, enlarges box flattener recommendations, expands dialogue of snapshot research, contains many new exemplary examples to demonstrate recommendations, and lots more and plenty extra. Optical engineers operating in lens layout will locate this booklet a useful consultant to lens layout in conventional and rising parts of program; it's also suited for complicated undergraduate or graduate path in lens layout ideas and as a self-learning educational and reference for the practitioner. Rudolf Kingslake (1903-2003) was once a founding school member of the Institute of Optics on the college of Rochester (1929) and remained instructing until eventually 1983. at the same time, in 1937 he grew to become head of the lens layout division at Eastman Kodak till his retirement in 1969. Dr. Kingslake released quite a few papers, books, and was once provided many patents. He was once a Fellow of SPIE and OSA, and an OSA President (1947-48). He used to be offered the growth Medal from SMPTE (1978), the Frederic Ives Medal (1973), and the Gold Medal of SPIE (1980). R. Barry Johnson has been concerned for over forty years in lens layout, optical structures layout, and electro-optical structures engineering. He has been a college member at 3 educational associations engaged in optics schooling and learn, co-founder of the heart for utilized Optics on the collage of Alabama in Huntsville, hired via a few businesses, and supplied consulting providers. Dr. Johnson is an SPIE Fellow and lifestyles Member, OSA Fellow, and an SPIE President (1987). He released a number of papers and has been provided many patents. Dr. Johnson used to be founder and Chairman of the SPIE Lens layout operating team (1988-2002), is an energetic software Committee member of the foreign Optical layout convention, and perennial co-chair of the once a year SPIE present advancements in Lens layout and Optical Engineering convention. completely revised and multiplied to mirror the colossal alterations within the box for the reason that its e-book in 1978Strong emphasis on tips to successfully use software program layout programs, crucial to ultra-modern lens designerMany new lens layout difficulties and examples - starting from basic lenses to advanced zoom lenses and replicate structures - provide perception for either the newcomer and professional within the box
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Additional info for Lens Design Fundamentals, Second Edition
Remember, of course, that the cosine of a negative angle is positive. When using this routine, it is necessary to carry over both sin U 0 and cos U 0 to become sin U and cos U at the next surface. 1 The Spherometer Formula The relation between the height Y and the sag Z of a spherical surface of radius r is often required. 8 that r2 ¼ Y 2 þ ðr À ZÞ2 ; hence pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z2 þ Y 2 ¼ r À r2 À Y 2 Z¼ 2r This can be expanded by the binomial theorem to give Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 5 þ þÁÁÁ (2-2) Z¼ þ 2 r 8 r 16 r Because r can become infinite, it is generally better to express Z in terms of the surface curvature c rather than the radius r.
Lenses covering a finite field with a remote stop (a) Eyepieces, magnifiers, and loupes (b) Viewfinders (c) Condensers (d) Afocal Galilean or anamorphic attachments 4. Catadioptric (mirror–lens) systems 5. Varifocal and zoom lenses Chapter 1 21 Each of these types, and indeed every form of lens, requires an individual and specific process for its design. Some lenses contain many refracting surfaces while some contain few. In some lenses there are so many available parameters that almost any glass can be used; in others the choice of glass is an important degree of freedom.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Lens bending Shift of power from one element to another Single and double graphs, to vary one or two lens parameters simultaneously Symmetry, for the automatic removal of the transverse aberrations Selection of stop position by the (H 0 – L) plot Achromatism by the (D – d ) method Selection of glass dispersions at the end of a design The matching principle for the design of a high-aperture aplanat Use of a “buried surface” for achromatism Reduction of the Petzval sum by a variety of methods Use of a narrow airspace to reduce zonal spherical aberration Introduction of vignetting to cut off bad rim rays Solution of four aberrations by the use of four simultaneous equations Application of aspheric surfaces for aberration control Since this book is primarily directed toward the needs of the beginner, no reference has been made to the more complex modern photographic objectives.