By Carol T. Walsh, Rochelle D. Schwartz-Bloom
Thoroughly revised and up to date, this can be the 7th variation of Levine's vintage pharmacology textbook. identified for it is thorough assurance and clever association, the publication covers the fundamental ideas of pharmacological interactions at the human physique in a fashion that's helpful for either undergraduate and graduate scholars. starting with historic views, nomenclature and definitions, the subjects increase to incorporate websites and mechanisms of drug activities and commute to websites of motion, in addition to termination and removal. The publication additionally comprises drug reaction and time-response relationships, reaction variability, drug toxicity, drug abuse, drug dependence, and extra.
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Extra info for Levine's Pharmacology: Drug Actions and Reactions, Seventh Edition (PHARMACOLOGY- DRUG ACTIONS & REACTIONS (LEVINE))
Whatever truth there be to this quip, it is certainly true that from the dawn of history people have exercised a desire to assuage suffering and combat illness by concocting thousands of medicinals and avidly partaking of them. But of this legion, only a handful continually enjoyed popularity through the ages and made their way to our own time. Why did the juice of the poppy seed, the beverages made from fermented fruits and vegetables, the infusion of the autumn crocus, the extract of willow bark or the seeds of the castor oil plant survive as useful remedies?
For instance, blood pressure is regulated in the normal individual by the diameter of blood vessels, the rate at which the heart beats and the amount of blood forced out of the chambers of the heart at each beat, as well as by influences coming to the heart or blood vessels from several areas of the brain. A substance may lower blood pressure by acting at any one of these sites involved in its regulation: directly on the muscle of the blood vessel walls; How drugs act on the living organism 33 indirectly through action on the heart muscle; or within the brain.
What is needed, then, is a bond that can form rapidly, is of sufficient strength to hold the molecule to the receptor and, most importantly, can exert its influence when the drug molecule is still distant from its receptor. The ionic bond formed by electrostatic attraction is best suited to this purpose. The ionic bond acts at high velocity and is stronger than the hydrogen bond and the bond formed by Van der Waals forces. Also, whereas the force of the latter diminishes as the seventh power of the interatomic distance, the force of the ionic bond diminishes only as the square of the distance.