Download PDF by J. W. Hand (auth.), Dr. Michel Gautherie (eds.): Methods of External Hyperthermic Heating

By J. W. Hand (auth.), Dr. Michel Gautherie (eds.)

The improvement of apparatus in a position to generating and tracking secure, potent and predictable hyperthermia remedies represents an enormous problem. the most challenge linked to any heating method is the necessity to alter and keep an eye on the distribution of absorbed energy within the tissue in the course of remedy. strength distribution is taken into account enough basically whilst tumor tissue could be maintained on the required hyperthermic degrees whereas, whilst, fit tissue isn't overheated. This challenge is especially an important while exterior heating units are used to supply hyperthermia. Ex­ ternal hyperthermia refers to these tools which provide warmth to tumor tissue in an exterior, noninvasive demeanour, in place of inner hyperther­ mia in which warmth is equipped to tumor tissue in situ. till lately, many of the technical advancements and scientific trials of ther­ motherapy for superficial and deep tumors were according to elec­ tromagnetic platforms. shortly, there's expanding curiosity within the use of extremely­ sound to complete those targets. Electromagnetic strategies of exterior thermotherapy comprise radiative, capacitive, and, to a lesser quantity, inductive strategies. fresh designs for radiative applicators have included microstrip buildings. those have the good thing about being compact and light-weight in comparison with dielectrically loaded waveguide applicators.

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The Technical Committee of the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology defined (d1/2) penetration depth in terms of SAR measured in a plane homogeneous muscle phantom as the distance below 5 mm at which the SAR is 50"70 of the SAR at the 5 mm depth (Hand et al. 1989b). Since the presence of a bolus will increase the distance from the aperture and the position at which measurements are made, the penetration depth must be determined with the bolus present, if appropriate. In the same document, this committee defined the effective field size of an applicator as the contour of 50"70 peak SAR measured at a depth of 5 mm below the surface of the muscle phantom.

Most radiative applicators are designed to be used in direct contact with a bolus. This improves the coupling of the E-field to the tissues, avoids exposing the tissues to the fields very close to the aperture of the applicator and maintains leakage fields at an acceptably low level. 31 Biophysics and Technology of Electromagnetic Hyperthermia h 2 (mn)2 (nn)2 b = Y2mn + W 2p,e = -;- + and A = constant. 9 m and n are integers (but not both equal to zero) and define the number of half sine variations in the x- and y-directions, respectively, exhibited by the field.

The line is tuned below its resonant frequency. 18 shows the effect of varying the spacing be- for resonance by an external capacitor at one end and tween tissues and a three-turn s;oil (with radii of 4, 5 short-circuited at the other end (Fig. 19). Particular and 6 cm) driven at 27 MHz on the absorbed power dimensions for the applicator may be accommodated density at the surface of a 1 cm thick layer of fat by selecting the length of the line, L (6-10 cm), and overlying muscle tissue. When the separation between placing several lines in parallel to give a width in the coil and tissues is less than about 3 cm, the E z com- range 4 - 9 cm.

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