By Bernard Roy (auth.)
axiomatic effects can be on the middle of one of these technological know-how. via them, we should always manage to enlighten and scientifically help decision-making techniques particularly through: - making that wh ich is target stand out extra c1early from that that is much less goal; - keeping apart powerful from fragile conc1usions; - dissipating convinced varieties of false impression in conversation; - keeping off the pitfall of illusory reasoning; - emphasizing, when they are understood, incontrovertible effects. The problems I encountered on the begining of my occupation as an operations researcher, and later as a specialist, made me notice that there have been a few obstacles on objectivity in decision-aiding. for my part, 5 significant features needs to be considered: 1) The borderline (or frontier) among what's and what's now not possible is frequently fuzzy. additionally, this borderline is often transformed in gentle of what's came upon from the research itself. 2) in lots of real-world difficulties, the "decision maker D" doesn't relatively exist as somebody really in a position to make adecision. frequently, numerous humans (actors or stakeholders) participate in the choice method, and it's important to not confuse the person who ratifies adecision with the so-called determination maker within the determination ai ding method. This selection maker is actually the individual or the set of folks for whom or within the identify of whom selection supporting attempt is provided.
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These problems might involve periodic (see Example 6) or on ce only (see Example 7) decisions. Modeling these decisions is almost always complicated by the vagueness associated with the contents and progress of these operations, by the difficulty in quantifying the many consequences that will determine their success, and by the hypothetical nature of this success and of the investments that will be required. Example 6: Research Projecl Here, we consider an industrial organization 0 whose Research and Development Division accepts and rejects funding requests for research projects submitted from the rest of the organization.
2 NATIONAL OR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS In these problems, the decisions possess an important political component. They cover a relatively long period of time and are usually subject to successive revisions. The difficulties are principally due to ignorance of or uncertainty surrounding the consequences of the possible decisions and to the sensitivity of compromise solutions to the value systems that come into play. Example 3: Agricultural Development Here, we consider the case of a developing country 6> with a rapidly increasing population.
If there exists such a thing as "science of decision aiding," it must be considered from this perspective and not from one concerned with demonstrating the optimality of adecision or with dictating the decision to be taken. 2 Aiding for whom? Usually, it is one of the stakeholders who is being aided. The various stakeholders in the process might be relatively diverse, having different objectives and conflicting value systems. Therefore, a specific application of decision aiding will rarely be comprehensive enough to benefit all of them.