By Fred D. Miller
This accomplished examine of Aristotle's Politics argues that nature, justice, and rights are critical to Aristotle's political inspiration. Miller demanding situations the commonly held view that the idea that of rights is alien to Aristotle's suggestion, and offers proof for speak of rights in Aristotle's writings. He argues extra that Aristotle's thought of justice helps claims of person rights which are political and established in nature.
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Additional info for Nature, Justice, and Rights in Aristotle's Politics
Is the basis for a household and polis. This is evidence that a human being is a political animal more than any bee or any gregarious animal. 54 Political animals are able to co-operate with a view to a common end or function, and through communication humans are able to cooperate more effectively and at a higher level than other animals. For human beings alone possess moral perception, and above all 53 Logos can mean ‘reason’ as well as ‘speech’ or ‘language’. The context indicates that human speech involves practical rationality.
However, there are no certain references between the latter two sequences so that Aristotle himself may not have settled on their mutual relation. 38 At any rate, the books do not form a strict linear sequence but only the partial ordering shown in Fig. 3. This partial ordering follows the internal logic of the treatise, stays within the pattern of cross-references, and emphasizes the central position of Book III. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff suggested that the difﬁculties in 35 The Politics contains six references to ‘the ethical treatises’ (ta ēthika, hoi ēthikoi logoi ), of which four are to the ‘common books’ (II 2 1261a 31 is to EN V 5 1132b 31–4; III 9 1280a 18 is to EN V 3 1131a 14–24; III 12 1282b 20 is to EN V 3 1131a 11–14; and IV 11 1295a 36 is to EN VII 13 1153b 9–21), and two are probably to the Eudemian Ethics (VII 13 1332a 8 most probably refers to EE II 1 1219a 38–9, b 1–2, though it may refer to EN I 7 1098a 16–18, 10 1101a 14–16; VII 13 1332a 22 most probably refers to EE VIII 3 1248b 26–7, but it may refer to MM II 9 1207b 31–3).
II 3 195a 23–5. Aristotle also identiﬁes the end of a thing with its function (ergon ). There is a dispute among interpreters as to whether Aristotle thinks that X is a ﬁnal cause because X is good, or vice versa. See Gotthelf (1988) and Sect. 2 below. 28 POLITICAL THEORY cast), a formal cause (its shape), an efﬁcient or moving cause (the sculptor), and a nal cause (the purpose of the sculptor). g. g. plants send their roots down rather than up in order to obtain nourishment (8 199a26–30). 43 In conscious production there is a form in the soul of the human producer, but, in natural processes, there is a form in the parent and a potential to develop into a form, which is internal to the offspring.