By Alexander Stubb (auth.)
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Extra info for Negotiating Flexibility in the European Union: Amsterdam, Nice and Beyond
Coalitions can be ad hoc, strategic or tactical, issue-speciﬁc or widely based (Hayes-Renshaw and H. Wallace 1997), predictable or unpredictable. These patterns will be examined in Chapters 4 and 5. The coalition patterns generally depend on how repetitive the negotiations are, that is to say, how often the participants negotiate together about similar 22 Negotiating Flexibility in the European Union issues. Consequently, much of the analysis will depend on how consistent the behaviour of individual participants is.
In addition negotiators are The Nature of IGC Negotiations 17 often constrained by national administrations. The ﬂexibility negotiations in both Amsterdam and Nice, however, were somewhat different from regular policy-oriented negotiations. The principle of ﬂexibility was such a complex and abstract issue to negotiate that most ministries paid little or no attention to the subject. However, as negotiations proceeded, the Finance, Interior and Justice Ministries in respective Member States showed increased interest in ﬂexibility.
The result is that ﬂexibility has taken on its own language, which is partly theoretical and partly practical. The sub-categories of the theoretical discourse are (1) multi-speed, (2) variable geometry and (3) à la carte. The practical terminology, which can be partially found in the Amsterdam and Nice treaties, include (1) transitional clauses, (2) enabling clauses, (3) case-by-case ﬂexibility and pre-determined ﬂexibility. The practical can be pegged to the theoretical as follows: (1) transitional clauses correspond to multi-speed, (2) enabling clauses to variable geometry and (3) case-by-case ﬂexibility and predetermined ﬂexibility correspond to à la carte.