By M.Rezaul Islam
This pivot examines non-governmental association (NGO) interventions in neighborhood improvement projects, specifically social capital and group empowerment, and their position in investment and formulating improvement frameworks in constructing international locations like Bangladesh. It considers the major improvement discourse problems with collective motion, social belief and entry to wisdom, to political procedures and to monetary, social and traditional assets. Given the big share of international investment, NGOs and donors additionally more and more face the dual demanding situations of demonstrating either effective and powerful supply of providers and responsibility of their relationships with numerous stakeholders. Reflecting at the relevance of NGOs for neighborhood improvement, and the benefits, demanding situations and boundaries of NGO actions, this publication presents a complete examine of NGO participation in neighborhood improvement in Bangladesh and 3rd international nations extra largely to focus on a world drawback with foreign implications.
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Additional info for NGOs, Social Capital and Community Empowerment in Bangladesh
Islam and Mia (2007a) ﬁnd that most of the NGOs have programmes for socio-economic development but a very few of them have innovative elements, for example, in non-formal education linked income generation programme (IGP) for poverty alleviation. 3 BANGLADESH AND THE EMERGENCE OF NGOs FOR DEVELOPMENT 35 Buckland (1998) argues that a common criticism is that they are smallscale and consequently do not seriously affect widespread poverty. Hedrick-Wong et al. (2001) examine the impact of microcredit on poverty alleviation initiatives of Proshika and found two problems, such as poor knowledge about the use of microcredit and NGOs’ imperfect enforcement to utilise this credit.
Around 13 million, mainly poor women, are now reached through microﬁnance programmes, some 80% of primary enrolment is provided by NGO schools, and there are nationwide health and sanitation programmes, where NGOs are involved. The World Bank (2006, 3) shows that one key factor in the rapid growth of the sector has undoubtedly been the availability of foreign aid: grants to NGOs averaged $160 million annually in the ﬁrst half of the 1990s, and has grown to about $238 million annually since then.
Since then, many institutions have shown increasing interest in it and numerous international conferences have taken place concerned exclusively with IK. 44 NGOs, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT IN BANGLADESH IK is also known as ‘local’ or ‘traditional’ or ‘rural peoples’ knowledge’ and is not easily or simply deﬁned. It is a diverse concept. In anthropology, it refers to the original inhabitants of a speciﬁc geographical area, a land which may have been occupied subsequently by migrants or colonists (Morgan 2005).