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By United States. Dept. of the Army.; United States. Government Printing Office

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All hot pipe lines exposed to contact by personnel must be properly insulated or guarded. Section I. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS 4-2. General. Steam heating systems are classified according to the method of returning the condensate to the boiler, whether by gravity or by mechanical means. In the gravity system, the condensate is returned because of a static head of water in the return pipes. In this type of system all radiation must be above the boiler water line. In the mechanical system, the condensate flows by gravity to a receiver and is then forced into the boiler under pressure.

The minimum quantity of air that will provide complete combustion is the optimum amount. Too little air prevents complete combustion and wastes fuel. Too much air reduces the rate of heat transfer to the boiler and furnace, and consequently increases the amount of heat lost out of the stack. It is important, therefore, that airflow into the com bustion chamber be controlled to achieve the most favorable fuel/air ratio for any given firing rate. The burner/furnace efficiency nomograph, figure 3-18 correlates stack temperature, stack gas analysis, and boiler or furnace efficiency for natural gas and No*s 2 and 6 oil.

Examine previous load records to determine the optimum operating points to use when tuning an existing heating system. (3) Devices are available which continuously measure and integrate CO2 or O2 concentration and stack temperature to produce a direct reading of boiler efficiency. These indicators provide boiler operators with the requisite information for manual adjustment of the boiler fuel/air ratio. d. Automatic control. Optimum combustion efficiency, which varies continuously with changing loads and stack draft, can be achieved only through a continuous analysis of the flue gas.

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