Download PDF by Arie Y. Lewin and Melvin F. Shakun (Auth.): Policy Sciences. Methodologies and Cases

By Arie Y. Lewin and Melvin F. Shakun (Auth.)

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There are also benefits in the facilitation of information evaluation, the transfer of learning, and the study of hypothetical changes affecting outcomes before they occur. 4 Situational Normativism—Normative Analysis In normative analysis, we are concerned with what ought to or should be done in a decision situation. In situational normativism, normative analysis begins with a descriptive model of the policy-making system. Then, the normative phase involves a search for satisfactorily prescriptive solutions satisfying original goals or goals that have evolved in the process of analysis.

See, for example, Popper (1965). 40 Policy Sciences: Methodologies and Cases uncovered serve as plausible hypotheses about the decision-making behavior of other, similar, local governmental units. These may be tested and refined in at least three ways. The model may be adjusted on the basis of additional data as is done in problem-solving simulations, the same type of model may be developed elsewhere and comparisons made with the original one, or verbal hypotheses may be drawn from the model and tested using conventional hypothesis-testing techniques on new data.

And other special governmental agencies such as the TVA, NSF, NIH, GAO, etc. It is clear that as part of the legislative process Congress is always concerned with specifying or creating the agency which is given the task of implementation and is made accountable to it. The process of implementation is itself iterative. Congress, for example, may specify the organizational unit responsible for implementing an act. The process of organization design (or redesign) which follows to achieve implementation is an evolutionary one.

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