By George Alexander Kennedy
The progymnasmata have been basic to the instructing of prose composition and trouble-free rhetoric in ecu colleges from the Hellenistic interval to early smooth occasions. George A. Kennedy, one in every of the world’s major students of historical rhetoric, presents during this quantity an English translation of 4 Greek treatises written in the course of the time of the Roman empire yet studied in the course of the Roman and Byzantine periods—works attributed to Theon, Hermogenes, Aphthonius, and Nicolaus.
Also integrated during this very important quantity are translations of the fragments of Sopatros’ treatise in addition to John of Sardis’ remark on those routines. a number of of those works have by no means prior to been translated into English and are right here made obtainable to the final reader for the 1st time. The curriculum defined in those works supplied easy education in oral and written expression, but in addition inculcated cultural values and an realizing of the traditional literary forms—fable, narrative, chreia, ecphrasis, comparability, and so on—that have been the construction blocks of the epics, dramas, histories, and lyric poetry attribute of the Greco-Roman interval. The behavior of pondering and writing realized in faculties utilizing the progymnasmata molded not just the secular literature of the Greeks and Romans, but additionally the writings of the early Christians throughout the patristic interval.
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For it is ambiguous whether they are distressed at Thersites, which is false, or at the launching of the ships. ” It is unclear whether he is saying the people or Erechtheus were nurtured by Athene and born from the land. . There are several etymologies of tritogenês as an epithet of Athene. e, regarded as a prostitute. On amphibolies, see C. Atherton, The Stoics on Ambiguity (Cambridge Univ. , ), pp. –. Or possibly “not among Taurians,” as suggested by Butts, p. . Cf. .
In indirect discourse with subject accusative and verb in the infinitive. , but Theon’s reference is to some other passage now lost. , start with indirect discourse and move to direct discourse. Phaedo, frag. , in Socraticorum Reliquiae I, ed. Giannantoni; cf. . –. qxd 1/7/2003 10:50 AM Page 26 PROGYMNASMATA and by describing a river or something of that sort, and we condense by the opposite. For example, “a dog was carrying a piece of meat beside a river, and having seen his reflection in the water he thought it was another dog carrying a larger piece of meat.
One should, on the other hand, dwell at greater length on pleasant-sounding things, as the same poet makes Odysseus narrate his adventures to the story-loving Phaeacians with much detail and leisure (Odyssey –). The narration becomes clear from two sources: from the subjects that are described and from the style of the description of the Cf. –. This doctrine was taught by most later Greek rhetoricians. ), it originated in the school of Isocrates. Added by Patillon from the Armenian version.